|SMART accession number:||SM00043|
|Description:||Cystatins are a family of cysteine protease inhibitors that occur mainly as single domain proteins. However some extracellular proteins such as kininogen, His-rich glycoprotein and fetuin also contain these domains.|
|Interpro abstract (IPR000010):|
Peptide proteinase inhibitors can be found as single domain proteins or as single or multiple domains within proteins; these are referred to as either simple or compound inhibitors, respectively. In many cases they are synthesised as part of a larger precursor protein, either as a prepropeptide or as an N-terminal domain associated with an inactive peptidase or zymogen. This domain prevents access of the substrate to the active site. Removal of the N-terminal inhibitor domain either by interaction with a second peptidase or by autocatalytic cleavage activates the zymogen. Other inhibitors interact direct with proteinases using a simple noncovalent lock and key mechanism; while yet others use a conformational change-based trapping mechanism that depends on their structural and thermodynamic properties.
The cystatins are cysteine proteinase inhibitors belonging to MEROPS inhibitor family I25, clan IH [(PUBMED:2107324), (PUBMED:14587292), (PUBMED:1855589)]. They mainly inhibit peptidases belonging to peptidase families C1 (papain family) and C13 (legumain family). The cystatin family includes:
All true cystatins inhibit cysteine peptidases of the papain family (MEROPS peptidase family C1), and some also inhibit legumain family enzymes (MEROPS peptidase family C13). These peptidases play key roles in physiological processes, such as intracellular protein degradation (cathepsins B, H and L), are pivotal in the remodelling of bone (cathepsin K), and may be important in the control of antigen presentation (cathepsin S, mammalian legumain). Moreover, the activities of such peptidases are increased in pathophysiological conditions, such as cancer metastasis and inflammation. Additionally, such peptidases are essential for several pathogenic parasites and bacteria. Thus in animals cystatins not only have capacity to regulate normal body processes and perhaps cause disease when down-regulated, but in other organisms may also participate in defence against biotic and abiotic stress.
|GO function:||cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity (GO:0004869)|
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