Cation_ATPase_N

Cation transporter/ATPase, N-terminus
Cation_ATPase_N
SMART accession number:SM00831
Description: This entry represents the conserved N-terminal region found in several classes of cation-transporting P-type ATPases, including those that transport H+, Na+, Ca2+, Na+/K+, and H+/K+. In the H+/K+- and Na+/K+-exchange P-ATPases, this domain is found in the catalytic alpha chain. In gastric H+/K+-ATPases, this domain undergoes reversible sequential phosphorylation inducing conformational changes that may be important for regulating the function of these ATPases (PUBMED:12480547), (PUBMED:12529322).
Interpro abstract (IPR004014):

Transmembrane ATPases are membrane-bound enzyme complexes/ion transporters that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport of protons across a membrane. Some transmembrane ATPases also work in reverse, harnessing the energy from a proton gradient, using the flux of ions across the membrane via the ATPase proton channel to drive the synthesis of ATP.

There are several different types of transmembrane ATPases, which can differ in function (ATP hydrolysis and/or synthesis), structure (e.g., F-, V- and A-ATPases, which contain rotary motors) and in the type of ions they transport [(PUBMED:15473999), (PUBMED:15078220)]. The different types include:

  • F-ATPases (F1F0-ATPases), which are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes where they are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondria) or photosynthesis (chloroplasts).
  • V-ATPases (V1V0-ATPases), which are primarily found in eukaryotic vacuoles and catalyse ATP hydrolysis to transport solutes and lower pH in organelles.
  • A-ATPases (A1A0-ATPases), which are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases (though with respect to their structure and some inhibitor responses, A-ATPases are more closely related to the V-ATPases).
  • P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases), which are found in bacteria and in eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles, and function to transport a variety of different ions across membranes.
  • E-ATPases, which are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyse a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP.

P-ATPases (sometime known as E1-E2 ATPases) (EC 3.6.3.-) are found in bacteria and in a number of eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles [(PUBMED:9419228)]. P-ATPases function to transport a variety of different compounds, including ions and phospholipids, across a membrane using ATP hydrolysis for energy. There are many different classes of P-ATPases, each of which transports a specific type of ion: H+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ag+ and Ag2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cu+ and Cu2+. P-ATPases can be composed of one or two polypeptides, and can usually assume two main conformations called E1 and E2.

This entry represents the conserved N-terminal region found in several classes of cation-transporting P-type ATPases, including those that transport H+ (EC 3.6.3.6), Na+ (EC 3.6.3.7), Ca2+ (EC 3.6.3.8), Na+/K+ (EC 3.6.3.9), and H+/K+ (EC 3.6.3.10). In the H+/K+- and Na+/K+-exchange P-ATPases, this domain is found in the catalytic alpha chain. In gastric H+/K+-ATPases, this domain undergoes reversible sequential phosphorylation inducing conformational changes that may be important for regulating the function of these ATPases [(PUBMED:12480547), (PUBMED:12529322)].

More information about this protein can be found at Protein of the Month: ATP Synthases [].

Family alignment:
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There are 4321 Cation_ATPase_N domains in 4321 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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