Histone H3
SMART accession number:SM00428
Description: -
Interpro abstract (IPR000164):

This entry includes histone H3 and its variant, CENP-A (Cse4 in budding yeast, Cnp1 in fission yeast, and CID/CenH3 in fruit flies). Two primate-specific forms of H3, known as H3.X and H3.Y, are found in the brain [ (PUBMED:20819935) ].

Histone H3 is one of the five histones, along with H1/H5, H2A, H2B and H4. Two copies of each of the H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 histones ensemble to form the core of the nucleosome [ (PUBMED:16472024) ]. The nucleosome forms octameric structure that wraps DNA in a left-handed manner. H3 is a highly conserved protein of 135 amino acid residues [ (PUBMED:8121801) (PUBMED:2041803) ]. Histones can undergo several different types of post-translational modifications that affect transcription, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability.

Eukaryotic centromeres consists of an unique nucleosome in which CENP-A can be found [ (PUBMED:22729156) ]. Human CENP-A nucleosome forms a histone octamer containing two each of histones H2A, H2B, H4 and CENP-A. Similar to the H3-containing nucleosome, the CENP-A nucleosome wraps DNA in a left-handed orientation [ (PUBMED:21743476) (PUBMED:22127263) ]. CENP-A nucleosomes function as a scaffold on which other kinetochore proteins assemble. CENP-A may serves as an epigenetic marker for kinetochore assembly [ (PUBMED:24666101) ]. Deposition of CENP-A to the centromere requires histone chaperone HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein) [ (PUBMED:21478274) ].

GO component:nucleosome (GO:0000786)
GO function:DNA binding (GO:0003677)
Family alignment:
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There are 9119 H3 domains in 8899 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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