|SMART accession number:||SM00632|
|Interpro abstract (IPR006048):|
O-Glycosyl hydrolases (EC 3.2.1.) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycosyl hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of 85 different families [(PUBMED:7624375), (PUBMED:8535779)]. This classification is available on the CAZy (CArbohydrate-Active EnZymes) web site.
Alpha-amylase is classified as family 13 of the glycosyl hydrolases and is present in archaea, bacteria, plants and animals. Alpha-amylase is an essential enzyme in alpha-glucan metabolism, acting to catalyse the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds of glycogen, starch and related polysaccharides. Although all alpha-amylases possess the same catalytic function, they can vary with respect to sequence. In general, they are composed of three domains: a TIM barrel containing the active site residues and chloride ion-binding site (domain A), a long loop region inserted between the third beta strand and the alpha-helix of domain A that contains calcium-binding site(s) (domain B), and a C-terminal beta-sheet domain that appears to show some variability in sequence and length between amylases (domain C) [(PUBMED:11141191)]. Amylases have at least one conserved calcium-binding site, as calcium is essential for the stability of the enzyme. The chloride-binding functions to activate the enzyme, which acts by a two-step mechanism involving a catalytic nucleophile base (usually an Asp) and a catalytic proton donor (usually a Glu) that are responsible for the formation of the beta-linked glycosyl-enzyme intermediate.
This entry represents the all-beta domain that is found in several alpha-amylases, usually at the C terminus, and which forms a Greek key beta-barrel fold in these enzymes [(PUBMED:7877175)].
More information about this protein can be found at Protein of the Month: alpha-Amylase .
|GO process:||carbohydrate metabolic process (GO:0005975)|
|GO function:||cation binding (GO:0043169), catalytic activity (GO:0003824)|
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- Evolution (species in which this domain is found)
- Metabolism (metabolic pathways involving proteins which contain this domain)
- Structure (3D structures containing this domain)
- Links (links to other resources describing this domain)