DCX

Domain in the Doublecortin (DCX) gene product
DCX
SMART accession number:SM00537
Description: Tandemly-repeated domain in doublin, the Doublecortin gene product. Proposed to bind tubulin. Doublecortin (DCX) is mutated in human X-linked neuronal migration defects.
Interpro abstract (IPR003533):

X-linked lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation affecting males. Recently it has been demonstrated that the doublecortin gene is implicated in this disorder [(PUBMED:9489699)]. Doublecortin was found to bind to the microtubule cytoskeleton. In vivo and in vitro assays show that Doublecortin stabilises microtubules and causes bundling [(PUBMED:10441322)]. Doublecortin is a basic protein with an iso-electric point of 10, typical of microtubule-binding proteins. However, its sequence contains no known microtubule-binding domain(s).

The detailed sequence analysis of Doublecortin and Doublecortin-like proteins allowed the identification of an evolutionarily conserved Doublecortin (DC) domain. This domain is found in the N terminus of proteins and consists of one or two tandemly repeated copies of an around 80 amino acids region. It has been suggested that the first DC domain of Doublecortin binds tubulin and enhances microtubule polymerisation [(PUBMED:10749977)].

Some proteins known to contain a DC domain are listed below:

  • Doublecortin. It is required for neuronal migration [(PUBMED:9489699)]. A large number of point mutations in the human DCX gene leading to lissencephaly are located within the DC domains [(PUBMED:10749977)].
  • Human serine/threonine-protein kinase DCAMKL1. It is a probable kinase that may be involved in a calcium-signaling pathway controling neuronal migration in the developing brain [(PUBMED:10533048)].
  • Retinitis pigmentosa 1 protein. It could play a role in the differentiation of photoreceptor cells. Mutation in the human RP1 gene cause retinitis pigmentosa of type 1 [(PUBMED:10401003)].

GO process:intracellular signal transduction (GO:0035556)
Family alignment:
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There are 455 DCX domains in 241 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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