FH2

Formin Homology 2 Domain
FH2
SMART accession number:SM00498
Description: FH proteins control rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, especially in the context of cytokinesis and cell polarisation. Members of this family have been found to interact with Rho-GTPases, profilin and other actin-assoziated proteins. These interactions are mediated by the proline-rich FH1 domain, usually located in front of FH2 (but not listed in SMART). Despite this cytosolic function, vertebrate formins have been assigned functions within the nucleus. A set of Formin-Binding Proteins (FBPs) has been shown to bind FH1 with their WW domain.
Interpro abstract (IPR003104):

Formin homology (FH) proteins play a crucial role in the reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton, which mediates various functions of the cell cortex including motility, adhesion, and cytokinesis [(PUBMED:10631086)]. Formins are multidomain proteins that interact with diverse signalling molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, although some formins have been assigned functions within the nucleus. Formins are characterised by the presence of three FH domains (FH1, FH2 and FH3), although members of the formin family do not necessarily contain all three domains [(PUBMED:12538772)]. The proline-rich FH1 domain mediates interactions with a variety of proteins, including the actin-binding protein profilin, SH3 (Src homology 3) domain proteins, and WW domain proteins. The FH2 domain is required for the self-association of formin proteins through the ability of FH2 domains to directly bind each other [(PUBMED:14576350)], and may also act to inhibit actin polymerisation [(PUBMED:14992721)]. The FH3 domain (IPR010472) is less well conserved and may be important for determining intracellular localisation of formin family proteins. In addition, some formins can contain a GTPase-binding domain (GBD) (IPR010473) required for binding to Rho small GTPases, and a C-terminal conserved Dia-autoregulatory domain (DAD).

This entry represents the FH2 domain, which was shown by X-ray crystallography to have an elongated, crescent shape containing three helical subdomains [(PUBMED:15006353)].At its C terminus is the DRF autoregulatory region.

GO process:cellular component organization (GO:0016043), actin cytoskeleton organization (GO:0030036)
GO function:actin binding (GO:0003779)
Family alignment:
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There are 1180 FH2 domains in 1178 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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