GIYcGIY-YIG type nucleases (URI domain)
|SMART accession number:||SM00465|
|Interpro abstract (IPR000305):|
Nucleases of the GIY-YIG family are involved in many cellular processes, including DNA repair and recombination, transfer of mobile genetic elements, and restriction of incoming foreign DNA. The GIY-YIG superfamily groups together nucleases characterised by the presence of a domain of typically ~100 amino acids, with two short motifs "GIY" and "YIG" in the N-terminal part, followed by an Arg residue in the centre and a Glu residue in the C-terminal part [(PUBMED:10219084), (PUBMED:12379841), (PUBMED:15692561), (PUBMED:16646971), (PUBMED:19361436)].
The GIY-YIG domain forms a compact structural domain, which serves as a scaffold for the coordination of a divalent metal ion required for catalysis of the phosphodiester bond cleavage. The GIY-YIG domain has an alpha/bera-sandwich architecture with a central three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet flanked by three-helices. The three-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet contains the GIY-YIG sequence elements. The most conserved and putative catalytic residues are located on a shallow, concave surface and include a metal coordination site [(PUBMED:12379841), (PUBMED:15692561), (PUBMED:16646971), (PUBMED:19361436)].
The GIY-YIG domain has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes involving DNA cleavage, from self-propagation with or without introns, to restriction of foreign DNA, to DNA repair and maintenance of genome stability [(PUBMED:16646971)].
Some proteins known to contain a GIY-YIG domain include:
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