PA2c

Phospholipase A2
PA2c
SMART accession number:SM00085
Description: -
Interpro abstract (IPR016090):

Proteins containing this domain include eukaryotic phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2; EC 3.1.1.4), small lipolytic enzymes that releases fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol, usually in a metal-dependent reaction, to generate lysophospholipid (LysoPL) and a free fatty acid (FA) [(PUBMED:11872155)]. The resulting products are either dietary or used in synthetic pathways for leukotrienes and prostaglandins. Often, arachidonic acid is released as a free fatty acid and acts as second messenger in signaling networks [(PUBMED:10331081)]. These enzymes enable the of fatty acids and lysophospholipid by hydrolysing the 2-ester bond of 1,2-diacyl-3-sn-phosphoglycerides. In eukaryotes, PLA2 plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin and other mediators of inflammation. These enzymes are either secreted or cytosolic; the latter are either Ca dependent or Ca independent. Secreted PLA2s have also been found to specifically bind to a variety of soluble and membrane proteins in mammals, including receptors [(PUBMED:11293116)]. As a toxin, PLA2 is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin which blocks nerve terminals by binding to the nerve membrane and hydrolyzing stable membrane lipids [(PUBMED:11212293)]. The products of the hydrolysis (LysoPL and FA) cannot form bilayers leading to a change in membrane conformation and ultimately to a block in the release of neurotransmitters [(PUBMED:16805767),(PUBMED:10838563),(PUBMED:16339444)].

The phospholipase domain adopts an alpha-helical secondary structure, consisting of five alpha-helices and two helical segments. PLA2 may form dimers or oligomers [(PUBMED:11080675),(PUBMED:11897785),(PUBMED:12161451)].

GO process:arachidonic acid secretion (GO:0050482), phospholipid metabolic process (GO:0006644)
GO function:phospholipase A2 activity (GO:0004623)
Family alignment:
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There are 5804 PA2c domains in 5499 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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