PAH

Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family
PAH
SMART accession number:SM00309
Description: Pancreatic hormone is a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.
Interpro abstract (IPR001955):

Pancreatic hormone (PP) [(PUBMED:6107857)] is a peptide synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langherhans, which acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.

The hormone is produced as a larger propeptide, which is enzymatically cleaved to yield the mature active peptide: this is 36 amino acids in length [(PUBMED:3031687)] and has an amidated C terminus [(PUBMED:2599092)]. The hormone has a globular structure, residues 2-8 forming a left-handed poly-proline-II-like helix, residues 9-13 a beta turn, and 14-32 an alpha-helix,held close to the first helix by hydrophobic interactions [(PUBMED:3031687)]. Unlike glucagon, another peptide hormone, the structure of pancreatic peptide is preserved in aqueous solution [(PUBMED:2067973)]. Both N and C termini are required for activity: receptor binding and activation functions may reside in the N and C termini respectively [(PUBMED:3031687)].

Pancreatic hormone is part of a wider family of active peptides that includes:

  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) [(PUBMED:3031687)], one of the most abundant peptides in the mammalian nervous system. NPY is implicated in the control of feeding and the secretion of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.
  • Peptide YY (PYY) [(PUBMED:6953409)]. PPY is a gut peptide that inhibits exocrine pancreatic secretion, has a vasoconstrictory action and inhibits jejunal and colonic mobility.
  • Various NPY and PYY-like polypeptides from fish and amphibians [(PUBMED:1459125), (PUBMED:1620652)].
  • Neuropeptide F (NPF) from invertebrates such as worms and snail.
  • Skin peptide Tyr-Tyr (SPYY) from the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. SPYY shows a large spectra of antibacterial and antifungal activity.
All these peptides are 36 to 39 amino acids long. Like most active peptides, their C-terminal is amidated and they are synthesized as larger protein precursors.

GO component:extracellular region (GO:0005576)
GO function:hormone activity (GO:0005179)
Family alignment:
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There are 351 PAH domains in 329 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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