|SMART accession number:||SM00285|
|Description:||Small domains that bind Cdc42p- and/or Rho-like small GTPases. Also known as the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB).|
|Interpro abstract (IPR000095):|
This entry represents the CRIB domain.
Many putative downstream effectors of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac contain a GTPase binding domain (GBD), also called p21 binding domain (PBD), which has been shown to specifically bind the GTP bound form of Cdc42 or Rac, with a preference for Cdc42 [(PUBMED:8107774), (PUBMED:8625410)]. The most conserved region of GBD/PBD domains is the N-terminal Cdc42/Rac interactive binding motif (CRIB), which consists of about 16 amino acids with the consensus sequence I-S-x-P-x(2,4)-F-x-H-x(2)-H-V-G [(PUBMED:7493928)].
Although the CRIB motif is necessary for the binding to Cdc42 and Rac, it is not sufficient to give high-affinity binding [(PUBMED:9660763), (PUBMED:9601050)]. A less well conserved inhibitory switch (IS) domain responsible for maintaining the proteins in a basal (autoinhibited) state is located C-terminaly of the CRIB-motif [(PUBMED:10724160), (PUBMED:10975528), (PUBMED:10966102)].
GBD domains can adopt related but distinct folds depending on context. Although GBD domains are largely unstructured in the free state, the IS domain forms an N-terminal beta; hairpin that immediately follows the conserved CRIB motif and a central bundle of three alpha; helices in the autoinhibited state. The interaction between GBD domains and their respective G proteins leads to the formation of a high-affinity complex in which unstructured regions of both the effector and the G protein become rigid. CRIB motifs from various GBD domains interact with Cdc42 in a similar manner, forming an intermolecular beta;-sheet with strand beta;-2 of Cdc42. Outside the CRIB motif, the C-termini of the various GBD domains are very divergent and show variation in their mode of binding to Cdc42, perhaps determining the specificity of the interaction. Binding of Cdc42 or Rac to the GBD domain causes a dramatic conformational change, refolding part of the IS domain and unfolding the rest [(PUBMED:9660763), (PUBMED:10724160), (PUBMED:10975528), (PUBMED:10966102), (PUBMED:10360579)].
Some proteins known to contain a CRIB domain are listed below:
Click on the following links for more information.
- Evolution (species in which this domain is found)
Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing PBD domain.
This tree includes only several representative species. The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with PBD domain is also avaliable.
Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing PBD domain in the selected taxonomic class.
- Cellular role (predicted cellular role)
Cellular role: signalling
Binding / catalysis: Cdc42p-binding, Rho-GTPase-binding
- Literature (relevant references for this domain)
Primary literature is listed below; Automatically-derived, secondary literature is also avaliable.
- Nimnual AS, Yatsula BA, Bar-Sagi D
- Coupling of Ras and Rac guanosine triphosphatases through the Ras exchanger Sos.
- Science. 1998; 279: 560-3
- Display abstract
The Son of Sevenless (Sos) proteins control receptor-mediated activation of Ras by catalyzing the exchange of guanosine diphosphate for guanosine triphosphate on Ras. The NH2-terminal region of Sos contains a Dbl homology (DH) domain in tandem with a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. In COS-1 cells, the DH domain of Sos stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange on Rac but not Cdc42 in vitro and in vivo. The tandem DH-PH domain of Sos (DH-PH-Sos) was defective in Rac activation but regained Rac stimulating activity when it was coexpressed with activated Ras. Ras-mediated activation of DH-PH-Sos did not require activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase but it was dependent on activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. These results reveal a potential mechanism for coupling of Ras and Rac signaling pathways.
- Thompson G, Owen D, Chalk PA, Lowe PN
- Delineation of the Cdc42/Rac-binding domain of p21-activated kinase.
- Biochemistry. 1998; 37: 7885-91
- Display abstract
p21-activated kinases (PAKs) serve as effector proteins for the GTP-binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. They are serine/threonine kinases containing the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) motif. The main aim of this study was to define the minimal domain of alphaPAK required for Cdc42/Rac binding. Eight stable PAK fragments of varying lengths, each containing the CRIB motif (residues 75-88), were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their ability to interact with Cdc42 and Rac was assessed using scintillation proximity assays, isothermal titration calorimetry, and fluorescence techniques. The shortest fragments examined (residues 70-94 and 75-94) bound only weakly to either Cdc42 or Rac. A longer fragment starting at residue 75 and ending at residue 105 showed binding to Q61L Rac.GTP with Kd = 1.9 microM. Highest affinity binding (Kd approximately 0.05 microM) was seen with longer fragments ending at residue 118 or 132. A small increase in affinity was seen with those fragments starting at residue 70 rather than residue 75. PAK fragments bound with approximately 3-10-fold higher affinity to Cdc42 than to Rac and bound Q61L variants with 5-10-fold higher affinity than wild type. The dissociation rates of Q61L Rac.mant-GTP and of Q61L Cdc42. mant-GTP from PAK fragment residues 70-132 were measured to be 0.66 and 0.25 min-1, respectively, which are 100-fold lower than dissociation rates for Ras:Ras-effector domains, although their affinities are similar. Calorimetric measurements revealed that binding was associated with a relatively slow heat change. It is suggested that these PAK fragments (in the absence of Cdc42 or Rac) might exist predominantly in an inactive conformation that slowly interconverts with an active conformation and/or a slow conformational change may occur upon binding to Cdc42/Rac. In conclusion, the PAK CRIB motif itself is insufficient for high-affinity binding to Cdc42/Rac, but a 30 amino acid region of PAK (residues 75-105), containing this motif, is sufficient.
- Aspenstrom P
- A Cdc42 target protein with homology to the non-kinase domain of FER has a potential role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton.
- Curr Biol. 1997; 7: 479-87
- Display abstract
BACKGROUND: Members of the Rho family of small GTPases have been shown to have a diverse role in cell signalling events. They were originally identified as proteins that, by regulating the assembly of the actin cytoskeleton, are important determinants of cell morphology, and have recently been shown to be involved in transcriptional activation by the JNK/SAPK signalling pathway. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of Rho GTPases on these processes, the yeast two-hybrid system has been used to identify proteins that bind to an activated mutant of Cdc42, a Rho-family member. RESULTS: A cDNA encoding a previously unidentified Cdc42 target protein, CIP4, which is 545 amino-acids long and contains an SH3 domain at its carboxyl terminus, was cloned from a human B-cell library. The amino terminus of CIP4 bears resemblance to the non-kinase domain of the FER and Fes/Fps family of tyrosine kinases. In addition, similarities to a number of proteins with roles in regulating the actin cytoskeleton were noticed. CIP4 binds to activated Cdc42 in vitro and in vivo and overexpression of CIP4 in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reduces the amount of stress fibres in these cells. Moreover, coexpression of activated Cdc42 and CIP4 leads to clustering of CIP4 to a large number of foci at the dorsal side of the cells. CONCLUSIONS: CIP4 is a downstream target of activated GTP-bound Cdc42, and is similar in sequence to proteins involved in signalling and cytoskeletal control. Together, these findings suggest that CIP4 may act as a link between Cdc42 signalling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
- Feltham JL et al.
- Definition of the switch surface in the solution structure of Cdc42Hs.
- Biochemistry. 1997; 36: 8755-66
- Display abstract
Proteins of the rho subfamily of ras GTPases have been shown to be crucial components of pathways leading to cell growth and the establishment of cell polarity and mobility. Presented here is the solution structure of one such protein, Cdc42Hs, which provides insight into the structural basis for specificity of interactions between this protein and its effector and regulatory proteins. Standard heteronuclear NMR methods were used to assign the protein, and approximately 2100 distance and dihedral angle constraints were used to calculate a set of 20 structures using a combination of distance geometry and simulated annealing refinement. These structures show overall similarity to those of other GTP-binding proteins, with some exceptions. The regions corresponding to switch I and switch II in H-ras are disordered, and no evidence was found for an alpha-helix in switch II. The 13-residue insertion, which is only present in rho-subtype proteins and has been shown to be an important mediator of binding of regulatory and target proteins, forms a compact structure containing a short helix lying adjacent to the beta4-alpha3 loop. The insert forms one edge of a "switch surface" and, unexpectedly, does not change conformation upon activation of the protein by the exchange of GTP analogs for GDP. These studies indicate the insert region forms a stable invariant "footrest" for docking of regulatory and effector proteins.
- Leberer E, Wu C, Leeuw T, Fourest-Lieuvin A, Segall JE, Thomas DY
- Functional characterization of the Cdc42p binding domain of yeast Ste20p protein kinase.
- EMBO J. 1997; 16: 83-97
- Display abstract
Ste20p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the Ste20p/p65PAK family of protein kinases which are highly conserved from yeast to man and regulate conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Ste20p fulfills multiple roles in pheromone signaling, morphological switching and vegetative growth and binds Cdc42p, a Rho-like small GTP binding protein required for polarized morphogenesis. We have analyzed the functional consequences of mutations that prevent binding of Cdc42p to Ste20p. The complete amino-terminal, non-catalytic half of Ste20p, including the conserved Cdc42p binding domain, was dispensable for heterotrimeric G-protein-mediated pheromone signaling. However, the Cdc42p binding domain was necessary for filamentous growth in response to nitrogen starvation and for an essential function that Ste20p shares with its isoform Cla4p during vegetative growth. Moreover, the Cdc42p binding domain was required for cell-cell adhesion during conjugation. Subcellular localization of wild-type and mutant Ste20p fused to green fluorescent protein showed that the Cdc42p binding domain is needed to direct localization of Ste20p to regions of polarized growth. These results suggest that Ste20p is regulated in different developmental pathways by different mechanisms which involve heterotrimeric and small GTP binding proteins.
- Osada S, Izawa M, Koyama T, Hirai S, Ohno S
- A domain containing the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) region of p65PAK inhibits transcriptional activation and cell transformation mediated by the Ras-Rac pathway.
- FEBS Lett. 1997; 404: 227-33
- Display abstract
The molecular bases of the versatile functions of Rho-like GTPases are still unknown. Using luciferase assays with rat 3Y1 cells, we found that Rac1 is integrated downstream of Ras in the TRE (TPA response element) activation pathway. Coexpression of a mutant of p65PAK, PAK/RD, lacking the kinase domain but containing the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) region, suppressed the TRE activation and cell transformation caused by constitutively activated forms of Ras (RasV12) and Rac1 (Rac1V12). PAK/RD is a good tool to investigate the signaling pathways in which Rac and Cdc42 are involved.
- Rittinger K et al.
- Crystal structure of a small G protein in complex with the GTPase-activating protein rhoGAP.
- Nature. 1997; 388: 693-7
- Display abstract
Small G proteins transduce signals from plasma-membrane receptors to control a wide range of cellular functions. These proteins are clustered into distinct families but all act as molecular switches, active in their GTP-bound form but inactive when GDP-bound. The Rho family of G proteins, which includes Cdc42Hs, activate effectors involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton formation, cell proliferation and the JNK signalling pathway. G proteins generally have a low intrinsic GTPase hydrolytic activity but there are family-specific groups of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that enhance the rate of GTP hydrolysis by up to 10(5) times. We report here the crystal structure of Cdc42Hs, with the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue GMPPNP, in complex with the GAP domain of p50rhoGAP at 2.7A resolution. In the complex Cdc42Hs interacts, mainly through its switch I and II regions, with a shallow pocket on rhoGAP which is lined with conserved residues. Arg 85 of rhoGAP interacts with the P-loop of Cdc42Hs, but from biochemical data and by analogy with the G-protein subunit G(i alpha1), we propose that it adopts a different conformation during the catalytic cycle which enables it to stabilize the transition state of the GTP-hydrolysis reaction.
- Zhang B, Wang ZX, Zheng Y
- Characterization of the interactions between the small GTPase Cdc42 and its GTPase-activating proteins and putative effectors. Comparison of kinetic properties of Cdc42 binding to the Cdc42-interactive domains.
- J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 21999-2007
- Display abstract
The small GTPase Cdc42 interacts with multiple factors to transduce diverse intracellular signals. The factors that preferentially recognize the GTP-bound, active state of Cdc42 include a panel of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) motif-containing molecules, and the RasGAP domain containing IQGAP1 and IQGAP2. In the present study, we have determined the kinetic parameters underlying the functional interactions between the Cdc42-binding domains of some of these factors and Cdc42 by monitoring the continuous release of gammaPi and have compared the ability of the domains to bind to Cdc42. The catalytic efficiencies (Kcat/Km) of the GAP domains of Bcr, 3BP-1, and p190 on Cdc42 are found to be 60-, 160-, and over 500-fold less than that of Cdc42GAP, respectively, and the differences are due, to a large part, to differences in Km. The Km values of the GAP domains compare well to the binding affinity to the guanylyl imidodiphosphate-bound Cdc42, suggesting a rapid equilibrium reaction mechanism. The affinity of the Cdc42-binding domains of the CRIB motif of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein and p21(cdc42/rac)-activated kinase 1, and the RasGAP-related domain of IQGAP1, which all inhibit the intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis of Cdc42, are found to be 4, 0.7, and 0.08 microM, respectively. These quantitative analysis provide insight that Cdc42GAP functions as an effective negative regulator of Cdc42 by fast, relatively tight binding to the GTP-bound Cdc42, whereas IQGAP1 interacts with Cdc42 as a putative effector with over 10-fold higher affinity than the CRIB domains and GAPs, and suggest that various GAPs and effectors employ distinct mechanism to play roles in Cdc42-mediated signaling pathways.
- Hart MJ, Callow MG, Souza B, Polakis P
- IQGAP1, a calmodulin-binding protein with a rasGAP-related domain, is a potential effector for cdc42Hs.
- EMBO J. 1996; 15: 2997-3005
- Display abstract
Proteins that associate with the GTP-bound forms of the Ras superfamily of proteins are potential effector targets for these molecular switches. A 195 kDa protein was purified from cell lysates by affinity chromatography on immobilized cdc42Hs-GTP and a corresponding cDNA was isolated. Sequence analysis revealed localized identities to calponin, the WW domain, unconventional myosins and to the rasGAP-related domain (GRD) contained in IRA, NF-1, SAR1 and rasGAP. p195 was found to be identical to IQGAP1, a protein previously reported to bind ras. Purified recombinant p195/IQGAP1 bound to and inhibited the GTPase activity of cdc42Hs and rac whereas no interaction with ras was detected. The C-terminal half of IQGAP1 containing the GRD bound to cdc42 and rac in a GRD-dependent fashion, but a smaller fragment containing only the GRD did not. Cdc42 was also co-immunoprecipitated from cell lysates with antibody specific to p195/IQGAP1. Calmodulin also co-immunoprecipitated with p195/IQGAP1 and was found to associate with fragments containing the IQ domain. Expression of a cDNA fragment encoding the GRD inhibited the CDC24/CDC42 pathway in yeast, but no effect on ras was observed. In mammalian cells, both endogenous and ectopically expressed p195/IQGAP1 were localized to lamellipodia and ruffling cell membranes, where co-localization with actin was apparent. These results suggest that IQGAP1 is an effector target for cdc42Hs and may mediate the effects of this GTPase on cell morphology.
- Symons M et al.
- Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, a novel effector for the GTPase CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization.
- Cell. 1996; 84: 723-34
- Display abstract
The Rho family of GTPases control diverse biological processes, including cell morphology and mitogenesis. We have identified WASP, the protein that is defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), as a novel effector for CDC42Hs, but not for the other Rho family members, Rac and Rho. This interaction is dependent on the presence of the G protein-binding domain. Cellular expression of epitope-tagged WASP produces clusters of WASP that are highly enriched in polymerized actin. This clustering is not observed with a C-terminally deleted WASP and is inhibited by coexpression with dominant negative CDC42Hs-N17, but not with dominant negative forms of Rac or Rho. Thus, WASP provides a novel link between CDC42Hs and the actin cytoskeleton, which suggests a molecular mechanism for many of the cellular abnormalities in WAS. The WASP sequence contains two novel domains that are homologous to other proteins involved in action organization.
- Burbelo PD, Drechsel D, Hall A
- A conserved binding motif defines numerous candidate target proteins for both Cdc42 and Rac GTPases.
- J Biol Chem. 1995; 270: 29071-4
- Display abstract
Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 are small GTPases that regulate the formation of a variety of actin structures and the assembly of associated integrin complexes, but little is known about the target proteins that mediate their effects. Here we have used a motif-based search method to identify putative effector proteins for Rac and Cdc42. A search of the GenBankTM data base for similarity with the minimum Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) region of a potential effector protein p65PAK has identified over 25 proteins containing a similar motif from a range of different species. These candidate Cdc42/Rac-binding proteins include family members of the mixed lineage kinases (MLK), a novel tyrosine kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (DPR2), a human protein MSE55, and several novel yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans proteins. Two murine p65PAK isoforms and a candidate protein from C. elegans, F09F7.5, interact strongly with the GTP form of both Cdc42 and Rac, but not Rho in a filter binding assay. Three additional candidate proteins, DPR2, MSE55, and MLK3 showed binding to the GTP form of Cdc42 and weaker binding with Rac, and again no interaction with Rho. These results indicate that proteins containing the CRIB motif bind to Cdc42 and/or Rac in a GTP-dependent manner, and they may, therefore, participate in downstream signaling.
- Madaule P et al.
- A novel partner for the GTP-bound forms of rho and rac.
- FEBS Lett. 1995; 377: 243-8
- Display abstract
Using the yeast two hybrid system and overlay assays we identified a putative rholrac effector, citron, which interacts with the GTP-bound forms of rho and rac1, but not with cdc42. Extensive homologies to known proteins were not observed. This 183 kDa protein contains a C6H2 zinc finger, a PH domain, and a long coiled-coil forming region including 4 leucine zippers and the rholrac binding site. We recently identified three others putative rho effectors characterized by a common rho binding motif. Citron does not share this motif and displays a distinctive protein organization, thus defining a separate class of rho partners.
- Ottilie S et al.
- Fission yeast pak1+ encodes a protein kinase that interacts with Cdc42p and is involved in the control of cell polarity and mating.
- EMBO J. 1995; 14: 5908-19
- Display abstract
A STE20/p65pak homolog was isolated from fission yeast by PCR. The pak1+ gene encodes a 72 kDa protein containing a putative p21-binding domain near its amino-terminus and a serine/threonine kinase domain near its carboxyl-terminus. The Pak1 protein autophosphorylates on serine residues and preferentially binds to activated Cdc42p both in vitro and in vivo. This binding is mediated through the p21 binding domain on Pak1p and the effector domain on Cdc42p. Overexpression of an inactive mutant form of pak1 gives rise to cells with markedly abnormal shape with mislocalized actin staining. Pak1 overexpression does not, however, suppress lethality associated with cdc42-null cells or the morphologic defeat caused by overexpression of mutant cdc42 alleles. Gene disruption of pak1+ establishes that, like cdc42+, pak1+ function is required for cell viability. In budding yeast, pak1+ expression restores mating function to STE20-null cells and, in fission yeast, overexpression of an inactive form of Pak inhibits mating. These results indicate that the Pak1 protein is likely to be an effector for Cdc42p or a related GTPase, and suggest that Pak1p is involved in the maintenance of cell polarity and in mating.
- Metabolism (metabolic pathways involving proteins which contain this domain)
Click the image to view the interactive version of the map in iPath
% proteins involved KEGG pathway ID Description 16.47 map04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton 12.99 map04012 ErbB signaling pathway 12.99 map04660 T cell receptor signaling pathway 12.99 map05211 Renal cell carcinoma 12.99 map04510 Focal adhesion 12.99 map04360 Axon guidance 6.26 map04010 MAPK signaling pathway 4.18 map05120 Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection 4.18 map04650 Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity 3.48 map04520 Adherens junction 0.23 map00562 Inositol phosphate metabolism 0.23 map00632 Benzoate degradation via CoA ligation
This information is based on mapping of SMART genomic protein database to KEGG orthologous groups. Percentage points are related to the number of proteins with PBD domain which could be assigned to a KEGG orthologous group, and not all proteins containing PBD domain. Please note that proteins can be included in multiple pathways, ie. the numbers above will not always add up to 100%.
- Structure (3D structures containing this domain)
3D Structures of PBD domains in PDB
PDB code Main view Title 1cee SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF CDC42 IN COMPLEX WITH THE GTPASE BINDING DOMAIN OF WASP 1e0a Cdc42 complexed with the GTPase binding domain of p21 activated kinase 1ees SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF CDC42HS COMPLEXED WITH A PEPTIDE DERIVED FROM P-21 ACTIVATED KINASE, NMR, 20 STRUCTURES 1f3m CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN SERINE/THREONINE KINASE PAK1 2odb The crystal structure of human cdc42 in complex with the CRIB domain of human p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) 2ov2 The crystal structure of the human RAC3 in complex with the CRIB domain of human p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) 2qme Crystal structure of human RAC3 in complex with CRIB domain of human p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) 4fie Full-length human PAK4
- Links (links to other resources describing this domain)
PFAM PBD INTERPRO IPR000095