Pept_C1Papain family cysteine protease
|SMART accession number:||SM00645|
|Interpro abstract (IPR000668):|
In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:
In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.
Cysteine peptidases have characteristic molecular topologies, which can be seen not only in their three-dimensional structures, but commonly also in the two-dimensional structures. These are peptidases in which the nucleophile is the sulphydryl group of a cysteine residue. Cysteine proteases are divided into clans (proteins which are evolutionary related), and further sub-divided into families, on the basis of the architecture of their catalytic dyad or triad [(PUBMED:11517925)].
This group of proteins belong to the peptidase family C1, sub-family C1A (papain family, clan CA). It includes proteins classed as non-peptidase homologues. These are have either been shown experimentally to lack peptidase activity or lack one or more of the active site residues.
The papain family has a wide variety of activities, including broad-range (papain) and narrow-range endo-peptidases, aminopeptidases, dipeptidyl peptidases and enzymes with both exo- and endo-peptidase activity [(PUBMED:7845226)]. Members of the papain family are widespread, found in baculovirus [(PUBMED:8439290)], eubacteria, yeast, and practically all protozoa, plants and mammals [(PUBMED:7845226)]. The proteins are typically lysosomal or secreted, and proteolytic cleavage of the propeptide is required for enzyme activation, although bleomycin hydrolase is cytosolic in fungi and mammals [(PUBMED:3117099)]. Papain-like cysteine proteinases are essentially synthesised as inactive proenzymes (zymogens) with N-terminal propeptide regions. The activation process of these enzymes includes the removal of propeptide regions. The propeptide regions serve a variety of functions in vivo and in vitro. The pro-region is required for the proper folding of the newly synthesised enzyme, the inactivation of the peptidase domain and stabilisation of the enzyme against denaturing at neutral to alkaline pH conditions. Amino acid residues within the pro-region mediate their membrane association, and play a role in the transport of the proenzyme to lysosomes. Among the most notable features of propeptides is their ability to inhibit the activity of their cognate enzymes and that certain propeptides exhibit high selectivity for inhibition of the peptidases from which they originate [(PUBMED:12188906)].
The catalytic residues of papain are Cys-25 and His-159, other important residues being Gln-19, which helps form the 'oxyanion hole', and Asn-175, which orientates the imidazole ring of His-159.
|GO process:||proteolysis (GO:0006508)|
|GO function:||cysteine-type peptidase activity (GO:0008234)|
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- Evolution (species in which this domain is found)
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