S1Ribosomal protein S1-like RNA-binding domain
|SMART accession number:||SM00316|
|Interpro abstract (IPR022967):|
Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. The codons of the mRNA are exposed on the ribosome to allow tRNA binding. This leads to the incorporation of amino acids into the growing polypeptide chain in accordance with the genetic information. Incoming amino acid monomers enter the ribosomal A site in the form of aminoacyl-tRNAs complexed with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. The growing polypeptide chain, situated in the P site as peptidyl-tRNA, is then transferred to aminoacyl-tRNA and the new peptidyl-tRNA, extended by one residue, is translocated to the P site with the aid the elongation factor G (EF-G) and GTP as the deacylated tRNA is released from the ribosome through one or more exit sites [(PUBMED:11297922), (PUBMED:11290319)]. About 2/3 of the mass of the ribosome consists of RNA and 1/3 of protein. The proteins are named in accordance with the subunit of the ribosome which they belong to - the small (S1 to S31) and the large (L1 to L44). Usually they decorate the rRNA cores of the subunits.
Many ribosomal proteins, particularly those of the large subunit, are composed of a globular, surfaced-exposed domain with long finger-like projections that extend into the rRNA core to stabilise its structure. Most of the proteins interact with multiple RNA elements, often from different domains. In the large subunit, about 1/3 of the 23S rRNA nucleotides are at least in van der Waal's contact with protein, and L22 interacts with all six domains of the 23S rRNA. Proteins S4 and S7, which initiate assembly of the 16S rRNA, are located at junctions of five and four RNA helices, respectively. In this way proteins serve to organise and stabilise the rRNA tertiary structure. While the crucial activities of decoding and peptide transfer are RNA based, proteins play an active role in functions that may have evolved to streamline the process of protein synthesis. In addition to their function in the ribosome, many ribosomal proteins have some function 'outside' the ribosome [(PUBMED:11290319), (PUBMED:11114498)].
The S1 domain was originally identified in ribosomal protein S1 but is found in a large number of RNA-associated proteins. The structure of the S1 RNA-binding domain from the Escherichia coli polynucleotide phosphorylase has been determined using NMR methods and consists of a five-stranded antiparallel beta barrel. Conserved residues on one face of the barrel and adjacent loops form the putative RNA-binding site [(PUBMED:9008164)].
The structure of the S1 domain is very similar to that of cold shock proteins. This suggests that they may both be derived from an ancient nucleic acid-binding protein [(PUBMED:9008164)].
More information about these proteins can be found at Protein of the Month: RNA Exosomes .
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- Evolution (species in which this domain is found)
- Metabolism (metabolic pathways involving proteins which contain this domain)
- Structure (3D structures containing this domain)
- Links (links to other resources describing this domain)