PGAM

Phosphoglycerate mutase family
PGAM
SMART accession number:SM00855
Description: Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) and bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) are structurally related enzymes that catalyse reactions involving the transfer of phospho groups between the three carbon atoms of phosphoglycerate (PUBMED:2847721), (PUBMED:2831102), (PUBMED:10958932). Both enzymes can catalyse three different reactions with different specificities, the isomerization of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) as the primer of the reaction, the synthesis of 2,3-DPG from 1,3-DPG with 3-PGA as a primer and the degradation of 2,3-DPG to 3-PGA (phosphatase activity). In mammals, PGAM is a dimeric protein with two isoforms, the M (muscle) and B (brain) forms. In yeast, PGAM is a tetrameric protein.
Interpro abstract (IPR013078):

The histidine phosphatase superfamily is so named because catalysis centres on a conserved His residue that is transiently phosphorylated during the catalytic cycle. Other conserved residues contribute to a 'phosphate pocket' and interact with the phospho group of substrate before, during and after its transfer to the His residue. Structure and sequence analyses show that different families contribute different additional residues to the 'phosphate pocket' and, more surprisingly, differ in the position, in sequence and in three dimensions, of a catalytically essential acidic residue. The superfamily may be divided into two main branches. The relationship between the two branches is not evident by (PSI-)BLAST but is clear from more sensitive sequence searches and structural comparisons [(PUBMED:18092946)].

The larger branch 1 contains a wide variety of catalytic functions, the best known being fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (found in a bifunctional protein with 2-phosphofructokinase) and cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase. The latter is an unusual example of a mutase activity in the superfamily: the vast majority of members appear to be phosphatases. The bacterial regulatory protein phosphatase SixA is also in branch 1 and has a minimal, and possible ancestral-like structure, lacking the large domain insertions that contribute to binding of small molecules in branch 1 members.

Phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1) (PGAM) and bisphosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.4) (BPGM) are structurally related enzymes that catalyse reactions involving the transfer of phospho groups between the three carbon atoms of phosphoglycerate [(PUBMED:2847721), (PUBMED:2831102), (PUBMED:10958932)]. Both enzymes can catalyse three different reactions with different specificities, the isomerization of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) as the primer of the reaction, the synthesis of 2,3-DPG from 1,3-DPG with 3-PGA as a primer and the degradation of 2,3-DPG to 3-PGA (phosphatase EC 3.1.3.13 activity).

In mammals, PGAM is a dimeric protein with two isoforms, the M (muscle) and B (brain) forms. In yeast, PGAM is a tetrameric protein.

BPGM is a dimeric protein and is found mainly in erythrocytes where it plays a major role in regulating haemoglobin oxygen affinity as a consequence of controlling 2,3-DPG concentration. The catalytic mechanism of both PGAM and BPGM involves the formation of a phosphohistidine intermediate [(PUBMED:6294454)].

A number of other proteins including, the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase [(PUBMED:2557623)] that catalyses both the synthesis and the degradation of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and bacterial alpha-ribazole-5'-phosphate phosphatase, which is involved in cobalamin biosynthesis, contain this domain [(PUBMED:7929373)].

Family alignment:
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There are 7587 PGAM domains in 7515 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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