VWD

von Willebrand factor (vWF) type D domain
VWD
SMART accession number:SM00216
Description: Von Willebrand factor contains several type D domains: D1 and D2 are present within the N-terminal propeptide whereas the remaining D domains are required for multimerisation.
Interpro abstract (IPR001846):

A family of growth regulators (originally called cef10, connective tissue growth factor, fisp-12, cyr61, or, alternatively, beta IG-M1 and beta IG-M2), all belong to immediate-early genes expressed after induction by growth factors or certain oncogenes. Sequence analysis of this family revealed the presence of four distinct modules. Each module has homologues in other extracellular mosaic proteins such as Von Willebrand factor, slit, thrombospondins, fibrillar collagens, IGF-binding proteins and mucins. Classification and analysis of these modules suggests the location of binding regions and, by analogy to better characterised modules in other proteins, sheds some light onto the structure of this new family [(PUBMED:7687569)].

The vWF domain is found in various plasma proteins: complement factors B, C2, CR3 and CR4; the integrins (I-domains); collagen types VI, VII, XII and XIV; and other extracellular proteins [(PUBMED:8412987), (PUBMED:8145250), (PUBMED:1864378)]. Although the majority of VWA-containing proteins are extracellular, the most ancient ones present in all eukaryotes are all intracellular proteins involved in functions such as transcription, DNA repair, ribosomal and membrane transport and the proteasome. A common feature appears to be involvement in multiprotein complexes. Proteins that incorporate vWF domains participate in numerous biological events (e.g. cell adhesion, migration, homing, pattern formation, and signal transduction), involving interaction with a large array of ligands [(PUBMED:8412987)]. A number of human diseases arise from mutations in VWA domains. Secondary structure prediction from 75 aligned vWF sequences has revealed a largely alternating sequence of alpha-helices and beta-strands [(PUBMED:8145250)].

One of the functions of von Willebrand factor (vWF) is to serve as a carrier of clotting factor VIII (FVIII). The native conformation of the D' domain of vWF is not only required for factor VIII (FVIII) binding but also for normal multimerisation and optimal secretion. The interaction between blood clotting factor VIII and VWF is necessary for normal survival of blood clotting factor VIII in blood circulation. The VWFD domain is a highly structured region, in which the first conserved Cys has been found to form a disulphide bridge with the second conserved one [(PUBMED:10807780)].

Family alignment:
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There are 8205 VWD domains in 3709 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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