Secondary literature sources for Agglutinin
The following references were automatically generated.
- Kostlanova N et al.
- The fucose-binding lectin from Ralstonia solanacearum. A new type of beta-propeller architecture formed by oligomerization and interacting with fucoside, fucosyllactose, and plant xyloglucan.
- J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 27839-49
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Plant pathogens, like animal ones, use protein-carbohydrate interactions in their strategy for host recognition, attachment, and invasion. The bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, which is distributed worldwide and causes lethal wilt in many agricultural crops, was shown to produce a potent L-fucose-binding lectin, R. solanacearum lectin, a small protein of 90 amino acids with a tandem repeat in its amino acid sequence. In the present study, surface plasmon resonance experiments conducted on a series of oligosaccharides show a preference for binding to alphaFuc1-2Gal and alphaFuc1-6Gal epitopes. Titration microcalorimetry demonstrates the presence of two binding sites per monomer and an unusually high affinity of the lectin for alphaFuc1-2Gal-containing oligosaccharides (KD = 2.5 x 10(-7) M for 2-fucosyllactose). R. solanacearum lectin has been crystallized with a methyl derivative of fucose and with the highest affinity ligand, 2-fucosyllactose. X-ray crystal structures, the one with alpha-methyl-fucoside being at ultrahigh resolution, reveal that each monomer consists of two small four-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheets. Trimerization through a 3-fold or pseudo-3-fold axis generates a six-bladed beta-propeller architecture, very similar to that previously described for the fungal lectin of Aleuria aurantia. This is the first report of a beta-propeller formed by oligomerization and not by sequential domains. Each monomer presents two fucose binding sites, resulting in six symmetrically arranged sugar binding sites for the beta-propeller. Crystals were also obtained for a mutated lectin complexed with a fragment of xyloglucan, a fucosylated polysaccharide from the primary cell wall of plants, which may be the biological target of the lectin.
- Sultan NA, Kenoth R, Swamy MJ
- Purification, physicochemical characterization, saccharide specificity, and chemical modification of a Gal/GalNAc specific lectin from the seeds of Trichosanthes dioica.
- Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004; 432: 212-21
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A new galactose-specific lectin has been purified from the extracts of Trichosanthes dioica seeds by affinity chromatography on cross-linked guar gum. The purified lectin (T. dioica seed lectin, TDSL) moved as a single symmetrical peak on gel filtration on Superose-12 in the presence of 0.1 M lactose with an M(r) of 55 kDa. In the absence of ligand, the movement was retarded, indicating a possible interaction of the lectin with the column matrix. In SDS-PAGE, in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol, two non-identical bands of M(r) 24 and 37 kDa were observed, whereas in the absence of beta-mercaptoethanol, the lectin yielded a single band corresponding to approximately 55,000 Da, indicating that the two subunits of TDSL are connected by one or more disulfide bridges. TDSL is a glycoprotein with about 4.9% covalently bound neutral sugar. Analysis of near-UV CD spectrum by three different methods (CDSSTR, CONTINLL, and SELCON3) shows that TDSL contains 13.3% alpha-helix, 36.7% beta-sheet, 19.4% beta-turns, and 31.6% unordered structure. Among a battery of sugars investigated, TDSL was inhibited strongly by beta-d-galactopyranosides, with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside being the best ligand. Chemical modification studies indicate that tyrosine residues are important for the carbohydrate-binding and hemagglutinating activities of the lectin. A partial protection was observed when the tyrosine modification was performed in the presence of 0.2 M lactose. The tryptophan residues of TDSL appear to be buried in the protein interior as they could not be modified under native conditions, whereas upon denaturation with 8 M urea two Trp residues could be selectively modified by N-bromosuccinimide. The subunit composition and size, secondary structure, and sugar specificity of this lectin are similar to those of type-2 ribosome inactivating proteins, suggesting that TDSL may belong to this protein family.
- Jeyaprakash AA et al.
- Crystal structure of the jacalin-T-antigen complex and a comparative study of lectin-T-antigen complexes.
- J Mol Biol. 2002; 321: 637-45
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Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAc), generally known as T-antigen, is expressed in more than 85% of human carcinomas. Therefore, proteins which specifically bind T-antigen have potential diagnostic value. Jacalin, a lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) seeds, is a tetramer of molecular mass 66kDa. It is one of the very few proteins which are known to bind T-antigen. The crystal structure of the jacalin-T-antigen complex has been determined at 1.62A resolution. The interactions of the disaccharide at the binding site are predominantly through the GalNAc moiety, with Gal interacting only through water molecules. They include a hydrogen bond between the anomeric oxygen of GalNAc and the pi electrons of an aromatic side-chain. Several intermolecular interactions involving the bound carbohydrate contribute to the stability of the crystal structure. The present structure, along with that of the Me-alpha-Gal complex, provides a reasonable qualitative explanation for the known affinities of jacalin to different carbohydrate ligands and a plausible model of the binding of the lectin to T-antigen O-linked to seryl or threonyl residues. Including the present one, the structures of five lectin-T-antigen complexes are available. GalNAc occupies the primary binding site in three of them, while Gal occupies the site in two. The choice appears to be related to the ability of the lectin to bind sialylated sugars. In either case, most of the lectin-disaccharide interactions are at the primary binding site. The conformation of T-antigen in the five complexes is nearly the same.
- Pratap JV, Jeyaprakash AA, Rani PG, Sekar K, Surolia A, Vijayan M
- Crystal structures of artocarpin, a Moraceae lectin with mannose specificity, and its complex with methyl-alpha-D-mannose: implications to the generation of carbohydrate specificity.
- J Mol Biol. 2002; 317: 237-47
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The seeds of jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) contain two tetrameric lectins, jacalin and artocarpin. Jacalin was the first lectin found to exhibit the beta-prism I fold, which is characteristic of the Moraceae plant lectin family. Jacalin contains two polypeptide chains produced by a post-translational proteolysis which has been shown to be crucial for generating its specificity for galactose. Artocarpin is a single chain protein with considerable sequence similarity with jacalin. It, however, exhibits many properties different from those of jacalin. In particular, it is specific to mannose. The structures of two crystal forms, form I and form II, of the native lectin have been determined at 2.4 and 2.5 A resolution, respectively. The structure of the lectin complexed with methyl-alpha-mannose, has also been determined at 2.9 A resolution. The structure is similar to jacalin, although differences exist in details. The crystal structures and detailed modelling studies indicate that the following differences between the carbohydrate binding sites of artocarpin and jacalin are responsible for the difference in the specificities of the two lectins. Firstly, artocarpin does not contain, unlike jacalin, an N terminus generated by post-translational proteolysis. Secondly, there is no aromatic residue in the binding site of artocarpin whereas there are four in that of jacalin. A comparison with similar lectins of known structures or sequences, suggests that, in general, stacking interactions with aromatic residues are important for the binding of galactose while such interactions are usually absent in the carbohydrate binding sites of mannose-specific lectins with the beta-prism I fold.
- Wah DA et al.
- Crystal structure of native and Cd/Cd-substituted Dioclea guianensis seed lectin. A novel manganese-binding site and structural basis of dimer-tetramer association.
- J Mol Biol. 2001; 310: 885-94
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Diocleinae legume lectins are a group of oligomeric proteins whose subunits display a high degree of primary structure and tertiary fold conservation but exhibit considerable diversity in their oligomerisation modes. To elucidate the structural determinants underlaying Diocleinae lectin oligomerisation, we have determined the crystal structures of native and cadmium-substituted Dioclea guianensis (Dguia) seed lectin. These structures have been solved by molecular replacement using concanavalin (ConA) coordinates as the starting model, and refined against data to 2.0 A resolution. In the native (Mn/Ca-Dguia) crystal form (P4(3)2(1)2), the asymmetric unit contains two monomers arranged into a canonical legume lectin dimer, and the tetramer is formed with a symmetry-related dimer. In the Cd/Cd-substituted form (I4(1)22), the asymmetric unit is occupied by a monomer. In both crystal forms, the tetrameric association is achieved by the corresponding symmetry operators. Like other legume lectins, native D. guianensis lectin contains manganese and calcium ions bound in the vicinity of the saccharide-combining site. The architecture of these metal-binding sites (S1 and S2) changed only slightly in the cadmium/cadmium-substituted form. A highly ordered calcium (native lectin) or cadmium (Cd/Cd-substituted lectin) ion is coordinated at the interface between dimers that are not tetrameric partners in a similar manner as the previously identified Cd(2+) in site S3 of a Cd/Ca-ConA. An additional Mn(2+) coordination site (called S5), whose presence has not been reported in crystal structures of any other homologous lectin, is present in both, the Mn/Ca and the Cd/Cd-substituted D. guianensis lectin forms. On the other hand, comparison of the primary and quaternary crystal structures of seed lectins from D. guianensis and Dioclea grandiflora (1DGL) indicates that the loop comprising residues 117-123 is ordered to make interdimer contacts in the D. grandiflora lectin structure, while this loop is disordered in the D. guianensis lectin structure. A single amino acid difference at position 131 (histidine in D. grandiflora and asparagine in D. guianensis) drastically reduces interdimer contacts, accounting for the disordered loop. Further, this amino acid change yields a conformation that may explain why a pH-dependent dimer-tetramer equilibrium exists for the D. guianensis lectin but not for the D. grandiflora lectin.
- Loris R, De Greve H, Dao-Thi MH, Messens J, Imberty A, Wyns L
- Structural basis of carbohydrate recognition by lectin II from Ulex europaeus, a protein with a promiscuous carbohydrate-binding site.
- J Mol Biol. 2000; 301: 987-1002
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Protein-carbohydrate interactions are the language of choice for inter- cellular communication. The legume lectins form a large family of homologous proteins that exhibit a wide variety of carbohydrate specificities. The legume lectin family is therefore highly suitable as a model system to study the structural principles of protein-carbohydrate recognition. Until now, structural data are only available for two specificity families: Man/Glc and Gal/GalNAc. No structural data are available for any of the fucose or chitobiose specific lectins.The crystal structure of Ulex europaeus (UEA-II) is the first of a legume lectin belonging to the chitobiose specificity group. The complexes with N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and fucosylgalactose show a promiscuous primary binding site capable of accommodating both N-acetylglucos amine or galactose in the primary binding site. The hydrogen bonding network in these complexes can be considered suboptimal, in agreement with the low affinities of these sugars. In the complexes with chitobiose, lactose and fucosyllactose this suboptimal hydrogen bonding network is compensated by extensive hydrophobic interactions in a Glc/GlcNAc binding subsite. UEA-II thus forms the first example of a legume lectin with a promiscuous binding site and illustrates the importance of hydrophobic interactions in protein-carbohydrate complexes. Together with other known legume lectin crystal structures, it shows how different specificities can be grafted upon a conserved structural framework.
- Hamelryck TW, Moore JG, Chrispeels MJ, Loris R, Wyns L
- The role of weak protein-protein interactions in multivalent lectin-carbohydrate binding: crystal structure of cross-linked FRIL.
- J Mol Biol. 2000; 299: 875-83
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Binding of multivalent glycoconjugates by lectins often leads to the formation of cross-linked complexes. Type I cross-links, which are one-dimensional, are formed by a divalent lectin and a divalent glycoconjugate. Type II cross-links, which are two or three-dimensional, occur when a lectin or glycoconjugate has a valence greater than two. Type II complexes are a source of additional specificity, since homogeneous type II complexes are formed in the presence of mixtures of lectins and glycoconjugates. This additional specificity is thought to become important when a lectin interacts with clusters of glycoconjugates, e.g. as is present on the cell surface. The cryst1al structure of the Glc/Man binding legume lectin FRIL in complex with a trisaccharide provides a molecular snapshot of how weak protein-protein interactions, which are not observed in solution, can become important when a cross-linked complex is formed. In solution, FRIL is a divalent dimer, but in the crystal FRIL forms a tetramer, which allows for the formation of an intricate type II cross-linked complex with the divalent trisaccharide. The dependence on weak protein-protein interactions can ensure that a specific type II cross-linked complex and its associated specificity can occur only under stringent conditions, which explains why lectins are often found forming higher-order oligomers.
- Bourne Y, Zamboni V, Barre A, Peumans WJ, Van Damme EJ, Rouge P
- Helianthus tuberosus lectin reveals a widespread scaffold for mannose-binding lectins.
- Structure. 1999; 7: 1473-82
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BACKGROUND: Heltuba, a tuber lectin from the Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosus, belongs to the mannose-binding subgroup of the family of jacalin-related plant lectins. Heltuba is highly specific for the disaccharides Man alpha 1-3Man or Man alpha 1-2Man, two carbohydrates that are particularly abundant in the glycoconjugates exposed on the surface of viruses, bacteria and fungi, and on the epithelial cells along the gastrointestinal tract of lower animals. Heltuba is therefore a good candidate as a defense protein against plant pathogens or predators. RESULTS: The 2.0 A resolution structure of Heltuba exhibits a threefold symmetric beta-prism fold made up of three four-stranded beta sheets. The crystal structures of Heltuba in complex with Man alpha 1-3Man and Man alpha 1-2Man, solved at 2.35 A and 2.45 A resolution respectively, reveal the carbohydrate-binding site and the residues required for the specificity towards alpha 1-3 or alpha 1-2 mannose linkages. In addition, the crystal packing reveals a remarkable, donut-shaped, octahedral assembly of subunits with the mannose moieties at the periphery, suggesting possible cross-linking interactions with branched oligomannosides. CONCLUSIONS: The structure of Heltuba, which is the prototype for an extended family of mannose-binding agglutinins, shares the carbohydrate-binding site and beta-prism topology of its galactose-binding counterparts jacalin and Maclura pomifera lectin. However, the beta-prism elements recruited to form the octameric interface of Heltuba, and the strategy used to forge the mannose-binding site, are unique and markedly dissimilar to those described for jacalin. The present structure highlights a hitherto unrecognized adaptability of the beta-prism building block in the evolution of plant proteins.
- Hamelryck TW et al.
- Carbohydrate binding, quaternary structure and a novel hydrophobic binding site in two legume lectin oligomers from Dolichos biflorus.
- J Mol Biol. 1999; 286: 1161-77
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The seed lectin (DBL) from the leguminous plant Dolichos biflorus has a unique specificity among the members of the legume lectin family because of its high preference for GalNAc over Gal. In addition, precipitation of blood group A+H substance by DBL is slightly better inhibited by a blood group A trisaccharide (GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal) containing pentasaccharide, and about 40 times better by the Forssman disaccharide (GalNAc(alpha1-3)GalNAc) than by GalNAc. We report the crystal structures of the DBL-blood group A trisaccharide complex and the DBL-Forssman disaccharide complex.A comparison with the binding sites of Gal-binding legume lectins indicates that the low affinity of DBL for Gal is due to the substitution of a conserved aromatic residue by an aliphatic residue (Leu127). Binding studies with a Leu127Phe mutant corroborate these conclusions. DBL has a higher affinity for GalNAc because the N-acetyl group compensates for the loss of aromatic stacking in DBL by making a hydrogen bond with the backbone amide group of Gly103 and a hydrophobic contact with the side-chains of Trp132 and Tyr104.Some legume lectins possess a hydrophobic binding site that binds adenine and adenine-derived plant hormones, i.e. cytokinins. The exact function of this binding site is unknown, but adenine/cytokinin-binding legume lectins might be involved in storage of plant hormones or plant growth regulation. The structures of DBL in complex with adenine and of the dimeric stem and leaf lectin (DB58) from the same plant provide the first structural data on these binding sites. Both oligomers possess an unusual architecture, featuring an alpha-helix sandwiched between two monomers. In both oligomers, this alpha-helix is directly involved in the formation of the hydrophobic binding site. DB58 adopts a novel quaternary structure, related to the quaternary structure of the DBL heterotetramer, and brings the number of know legume lectin dimer types to four.
- Lee X et al.
- Structure of the complex of Maclura pomifera agglutinin and the T-antigen disaccharide, Galbeta1,3GalNAc.
- J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 6312-8
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Maclura pomifera agglutinin is a tetrameric plant seed lectin with high affinity for the tumor-associated T-antigen disaccharide, Galbeta1,3GalNAcalpha, and hence for many O-linked glycopeptide structures. Unlike members of most lectin families, it lacks both metal ions and Cys residues. The structure of its complex with Galbeta1,3GalNAc was determined to 2.2 by first using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction with a lead derivative of the native protein, and then using molecular replacement with the unrefined structure as a model to solve the structure of the complex. The subunits share the beta-prism architecture and three-fold pseudo-symmetry of the related lectin jacalin, with the 21-residue beta-chains in the center of the tetramer. Interactions with the GalNAc predominate in the binding of the disaccharide. It forms a network of H-bonds with only one side chain, from an Asp residue, the amino group of the N-terminal Gly of the alpha-chain, and peptide backbone atoms of two aromatic residues. The Gal moiety does not H-bond directly with residues in the same monomer, i.e. there is no true subsite for it, but there are interactions through two water molecules. In the crystal, it interacts with residues in the binding site of an adjacent tetramer. The minimum energy conformation expected for the disaccharide is retained, despite its mediating the tetramer-tetramer interactions in the crystal packing. The resulting lattice is comparable to those seen for complexes of other lectins with branched glycopeptides.
- Rao VS, Lam K, Qasba PK
- Three dimensional structure of the soybean agglutinin Gal/GalNAc complexes by homology modeling.
- J Biomol Struct Dyn. 1998; 15: 853-60
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Complexes of soybean agglutinin (SBA) with galactose (Gal) and N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) have been modeled based on its homology to erythrina corallodendron (EcorL) lectin. The three dimensional structure of SBA-Gal modeled with homology techniques agrees well with SBA-(beta-LacNAc)2Gal-R complex determined by X-ray crystallographic techniques at the beta-sheet regions and the regions where Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions bind. However, significant deviations have been observed between the modeled and the X-ray structures, particularly at the loop regions where the polypeptide chain could not be unequivocally traced in the X-ray structure. The hydrogen bonding scheme, predicted from the homology model, shows that the invariant residues i.e. Asp, Gly, Asn, and aromatic residues (Phe) found in all other legume lectins, bind Gal, slightly in a different way than reported in X-ray structure of SBA-pentasaccharide complex. The higher binding affinity of GalNAc over Gal to SBA is due to additional hydrophobic interactions with Tyr107 rather than a hydrogen bond between N-acetamide group of the sugar and the side chain of Asp88 as suggested from X-ray crystal structure studies. Our modeling also suggest that the variation in the length of the loop D observed among galactose binding legume lectins may not have any effect on the binding of sugar at the monosaccharide specific site of the lectins. Soybean agglutinin (SBA) is a member of the leguminous family of lectins. They generally possess a single carbohydrate binding site, besides the tightly bound Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions which are required for their carbohydrate binding activity. They possess a high degree of sequence homology and about 50% of the amino acid residues are invariant. Some of these invariant amino acid residues are involved in the binding of sugar moieties and in metal ion coordination. X-ray crystallographic studies showed that their three-dimensional structures are very similar, though they differ in their carbohydrate binding specificity (1-6). Three of the invariant residues Asp, Gly, and Asn, besides an aromatic residue (Phe or Tyr), are involved in carbohydrate binding. Independent of their sugar specificity, these four residues in legume lectins provide the basic frame for the sugar to bind.
- Olsen LR, Dessen A, Gupta D, Sabesan S, Sacchettini JC, Brewer CF
- X-ray crystallographic studies of unique cross-linked lattices between four isomeric biantennary oligosaccharides and soybean agglutinin.
- Biochemistry. 1997; 36: 15073-80
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Soybean agglutinin (SBA) (Glycine max) is a tetrameric GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin which forms unique cross-linked complexes with a series of naturally occurring and synthetic multiantennary carbohydrates with terminal GalNAc or Gal residues [Gupta et al. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 7495-7504]. We recently reported the X-ray crystal structure of SBA cross-linked with a biantennary analog of the blood group I carbohydrate antigen [Dessen et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 4933-4942]. In order to determine the molecular basis of different carbohydrate-lectin cross-linked lattices, a comparison has been made of the X-ray crystallographic structures of SBA cross-linked with four isomeric analogs of the biantennary blood group I carbohydrate antigen. The four pentasaccharides possess the common structure of (beta-LacNAc)2Gal-beta-R, where R is -O(CH2)5COOCH3. The beta-LacNAc moieties in the four carbohydrates are linked to the 2,3-, 2,4-, 3,6-, and 2,6-positions of the core Gal residue(s), respectively. The structures of all four complexes have been refined to approximately 2.4-2.8 A. Noncovalent lattice formation in all four complexes is promoted uniquely by the bridging action of the two arms of each bivalent carbohydrate. Association between SBA tetramers involves binding of the terminal Gal residues of the pentasaccharides at identical sites in each monomer, with the sugar(s) cross-linking to a symmetry-related neighbor molecule. While the 2,4-, 3,6-, and 2,6-pentasaccharide complexes possess a common P6422 space group, their unit cell dimensions differ. The 2, 3-pentasaccharide cross-linked complex, on the other hand, possesses the space group I4122. Thus, all four complexes are crystallographically distinct. The four cross-linking carbohydrates are in similar conformations, possessing a pseudo-2-fold axis of symmetry which lies on a crystallographic 2-fold axis of symmetry in each lattice. In the case of the 3,6- and 2,6-pentasaccharides, the symmetry of their cross-linked lattices requires different rotamer orientations about their beta(1,6) glycosidic bonds. The results demonstrate that crystal packing interactions are the molecular basis for the formation of distinct cross-linked lattices between SBA and four isomeric pentasaccharides. The present findings are discussed in terms of lectins forming unique cross-linked complexes with glycoconjugate receptors in biological systems.
- Wu AM, Song SC, Sugii S, Herp A
- Differential binding properties of Gal/GalNAc specific lectins available for characterization of glycoreceptors.
- Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1997; 34: 61-71
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Differentiating the binding properties of applied lectins should facilitate the selection of lectins for characterization of glycoreceptors on the cell surface. Based on the binding specificities studied by inhibition assays of lectin-glycan interactions, over twenty Gal and/or GalNAc specific lectins have been divided into eight groups according to their specificity for structural units (lectin determinants), which are the disaccharide as all or part of the determinants and of GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the peptide chain. A scheme of codes for lectin determinants is illustrated as follows: (1) F (GalNAc alpha 1-->3GalNAc), Forssman specific disaccharide--Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Helix pomatia (HPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (2) A (GalNAc alpha 1-->3 Gal), blood group A specific disaccharide--Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides (CFT), Soy bean (SBL), Vicia villosa-A4 (VVL-A4), and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. (3) Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser (Thr) of the protein core)--Vicia villosa B4 (VVL-B4), Salvia sclarea (SSL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Artocarpus integrifolia (Jacalin, AIL). (4) T (Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc), the mucin type sugar sequences on the human erythrocyte membrane(T alpha), T antigen or the disaccharides at the terminal nonreducing end of gangliosides (T beta)--Peanut (PNA), Bauhinia purpurea alba (BPL), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Sophora japonica (SJL), Artocarpus lakoocha (Artocarpin) lectins and Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA).(5) I and II (Gal beta 1-->3(4)GlcNAc)--the disaccharide residue at the nonreducing end of the carbohydrate chains derived from either N- or O-glycosidic linkage--Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Datura stramonium (TAL, Thorn apple), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL, Coral tree), and Geodia cydonium (GCL). (6) B (Gal alpha 1-->3Gal), human blood group B specific disaccharide--Griffonia(Banderiaea) simplicifolia B4 (GSI-B4). (7) E (Gal alpha 1-->4Gal), receptors for pathogenic E. coli agglutinin, Shiga toxin and Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I) and abrin-a.
- Sankaranarayanan R, Sekar K, Banerjee R, Sharma V, Surolia A, Vijayan M
- A novel mode of carbohydrate recognition in jacalin, a Moraceae plant lectin with a beta-prism fold.
- Nat Struct Biol. 1996; 3: 596-603
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Jacalin, a tetrameric two-chain lectin (66,000 Mr) from jackfruit seeds, is highly specific for the tumour associated T-antigenic disaccharide. The crystal structure of jacalin with methyl-alpha-D-galactose reveals that each subunit has a three-fold symmetric beta-prism fold made up of three four-stranded beta-sheets. The lectin exhibits a novel carbohydrate-binding site involving the N terminus of the alpha-chain which is generated through a post-translational modification involving proteolysis, the first known instance where such a modification has been used to confer carbohydrate specificity. This new lectin fold may be characteristic of the Moraceae plant family. The structure provides an explanation for the relative affinities of the lectin for galactose derivatives and provides insights into the structural basis of its T-antigen specificity.
- Liao DI, Kapadia G, Ahmed H, Vasta GR, Herzberg O
- Structure of S-lectin, a developmentally regulated vertebrate beta-galactoside-binding protein.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994; 91: 1428-32
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The crystal structure of a 14-kDa bovine spleen S-lectin complexed with the disaccharide N-acetyllactosamine at 1.9-A resolution reveals a surprising structural relationship to legume lectins, despite the lack of sequence homology. Two monomers associate to form an extended beta-sandwich, each with the same jelly roll topology typical of legume lectins but with dramatically trimmed loops and with different dimer association. Each monomer binds one N-acetyllactosamine molecule in a topologically and spatially different site than that of legume lectins. The carbohydrate-binding site provides an unprecedented paradigm for carbohydrate binding, with a unique network of salt bridges. The specificity for beta-galactose arises from intricate interactions that constrain the position of the O4 atom.
- Sata T, Zuber C, Rinderle SJ, Goldstein IJ, Roth J
- Expression patterns of the T antigen and the cryptic T antigen in rat fetuses: detection with the lectin amaranthin.
- J Histochem Cytochem. 1990; 38: 763-74
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The lectin amaranthin, purified from the seeds of Amaranthus caudatus, has been shown to react specifically with the Gal beta 1,3GalNAc-alpha and the NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,3GalNAc-alpha sequence which represent the T antigen and the cryptic T antigen, respectively. We report here the development of labeling techniques that apply amaranthin to stain paraffin sections from rat fetuses. Amaranthin staining was inhibited by pre-incubation of lectin-gold complexes with 10 mM Gal beta 1,3GalNAc-alpha-O-benzyl (synthetic T antigen) or 10 mM Gal beta 1,3GalNAc-alpha-O-aminophenylethyl-human serum albumin (T antigen neoglycoprotein), asialoglycophorin, asialofetuin, and asialomucin. The beta-elimination reaction also abolished the lectin staining demonstrating specificity for O-glycosidically linked structures. A comparison with monoclonal anti-T antigen antibody immunostaining demonstrated that amaranthin detects the T antigen and its cryptic form in tissue sections. Application of the galactose oxidase-Schiff sequence abolished amaranthin (and anti-T antibody) binding to the T antigen but not to its cryptic form, and therefore permitted their differentiation in tissue sections. Histochemical evidence was obtained indicating that amaranthin is a more specific anti-T reagent than peanut lectin. Data are presented that show the differential expression of the T antigen and the cryptic T antigen in organs and cells of rat fetuses late in gestation. Therefore, amaranthin can be used for histochemical detection of the T antigen and the cryptic T antigen, and facilitates discrimination between them.