Secondary literature sources for BBOX
The following references were automatically generated.
- Moller HM, Martinez-Yamout MA, Dyson HJ, Wright PE
- Solution structure of the N-terminal zinc fingers of the Xenopus laevis double-stranded RNA-binding protein ZFa.
- J Mol Biol. 2005; 351: 718-30
- Display abstract
Several zinc finger proteins have been discovered recently that bind specifically to double-stranded RNA. These include the mammalian JAZ and wig proteins, and the seven-zinc finger protein ZFa from Xenopus laevis. We have determined the solution structure of a 127 residue fragment of ZFa, which consists of two zinc finger domains connected by a linker that remains unstructured in the free protein in solution. The first zinc finger consists of a three-stranded beta-sheet and three helices, while the second finger contains only a two-stranded sheet and two helices. The common structures of the core regions of the two fingers are superimposable. Each finger has a highly electropositive surface that maps to a helix-kink-helix motif. There is no evidence for interactions between the two fingers, consistent with the length (24 residues) and unstructured nature of the intervening linker. Comparison with a number of other proteins shows similarities in the topology and arrangement of secondary structure elements with canonical DNA-binding zinc fingers, with protein interaction motifs such as FOG zinc fingers, and with other DNA-binding and RNA-binding proteins that do not contain zinc. However, in none of these cases does the alignment of these structures with the ZFa zinc fingers produce a consistent picture of a plausible RNA-binding interface. We conclude that the ZFa zinc fingers represent a new motif for the binding of double-stranded RNA.
- Warming S et al.
- Evi3, a common retroviral integration site in murine B-cell lymphoma, encodes an EBFAZ-related Kruppel-like zinc finger protein.
- Blood. 2003; 101: 1934-40
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Retroviral insertional mutagenesis in inbred mouse strains provides a powerful method for cancer gene discovery. Here, we show that a common retroviral integration site (RIS) in AKXD B-cell lymphomas, termed Evi3, encodes a novel zinc finger protein with 30 Kruppel-like zinc finger repeats. Most integrations at Evi3 are located upstream of the first translated exon and result in 3' long-terminal repeat (LTR)-driven overexpression of Evi3. Evi3 is highly related to the early B-cell factor-associated zinc finger gene (Ebfaz), and all 30 zinc fingers found in EVI3 are conserved in EBFAZ. EBFAZ binds to and negatively regulates early B-cell factor (EBF) (also known as olfactory-1, OLF1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor required for B-lineage commitment and the development of the olfactory epithelium. EBFAZ also binds to SMA- and MAD-related protein-1 (SMAD1) and SMAD4 in response to bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) signaling, which in turn activates the homeobox regulator of Xenopus mesoderm and neural development Xvent-2. Surprisingly, while Ebfaz and Evi3 are coexpressed in many tissues, and both proteins are nuclear, we could not detect Ebfaz expression in B cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), whereas Evi3 expression could be detected at all stages of B-cell development. Our results suggest that EVI3, like EBFAZ, is a multifunctional protein that participates in many signaling pathways via its multiple zinc fingers. Furthermore, our results suggest that EVI3, not EBFAZ, is the member of this protein family that interacts with and regulates EBF in B cells.
- Borden KL, Lally JM, Martin SR, O'Reilly NJ, Etkin LD, Freemont PS
- Novel topology of a zinc-binding domain from a protein involved in regulating early Xenopus development.
- EMBO J. 1995; 14: 5947-56
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Xenopus nuclear factor XNF7, a maternally expressed protein, functions in patterning of the embryo. XNF7 contains a number of defined protein domains implicated in the regulation of some developmental processes. Among these is a tripartite motif comprising a zinc-binding RING finger and B-box domain next to a predicted alpha-helical coiled-coil domain. Interestingly, this motif is found in a variety of protein including several proto-oncoproteins. Here we describe the solution structure of the XNF7 B-box zinc-binding domain determined at physiological pH by 1H NMR methods. The B-box structure represents the first three-dimensional structure of this new motif and comprises a monomer have two beta-strands, two helical turns and three extended loop regions packed in a novel topology. The r.m.s. deviation for the best 18 structures is 1.15 A for backbone atoms and 1.94 A for all atoms. Structure calculations and biochemical data shows one zinc atom ligated in a Cys2-His2 tetrahedral arrangement. We have used mutant peptides to determine the metal ligation scheme which surprisingly shows that not all of the seven conserved cysteines/histidines in the B-box motif are involved in metal ligation. The B-box structure is not similar in tertiary fold to any other known zinc-binding motif.