Secondary literature sources for BURP
The following references were automatically generated.
- Rodrigues FA et al.
- Daytime soybean transcriptome fluctuations during water deficit stress.
- BMC Genomics. 2015; 16: 505-505
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BACKGROUND: Since drought can seriously affect plant growth and development and little is known about how the oscillations of gene expression during the drought stress-acclimation response in soybean is affected, we applied Illumina technology to sequence 36 cDNA libraries synthesized from control and drought-stressed soybean plants to verify the dynamic changes in gene expression during a 24-h time course. Cycling variables were measured from the expression data to determine the putative circadian rhythm regulation of gene expression. RESULTS: We identified 4866 genes differentially expressed in soybean plants in response to water deficit. Of these genes, 3715 were differentially expressed during the light period, from which approximately 9.55 % were observed in both light and darkness. We found 887 genes that were either up- or down-regulated in different periods of the day. Of 54,175 predicted soybean genes, 35.52 % exhibited expression oscillations in a 24 h period. This number increased to 39.23 % when plants were submitted to water deficit. Major differences in gene expression were observed in the control plants from late day (ZT16) until predawn (ZT20) periods, indicating that gene expression oscillates during the course of 24 h in normal development. Under water deficit, dissimilarity increased in all time-periods, indicating that the applied stress influenced gene expression. Such differences in plants under stress were primarily observed in ZT0 (early morning) to ZT8 (late day) and also from ZT4 to ZT12. Stress-related pathways were triggered in response to water deficit primarily during midday, when more genes were up-regulated compared to early morning. Additionally, genes known to be involved in secondary metabolism and hormone signaling were also expressed in the dark period. CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression networks can be dynamically shaped to acclimate plant metabolism under environmental stressful conditions. We have identified putative cycling genes that are expressed in soybean leaves under normal developmental conditions and genes whose expression oscillates under conditions of water deficit. These results suggest that time of day, as well as light and temperature oscillations that occur considerably affect the regulation of water deficit stress response in soybean plants.
- Tang Y et al.
- Expression of a vacuole-localized BURP-domain protein from soybean (SALI3-2) enhances tolerance to cadmium and copper stresses.
- PLoS One. 2014; 9: 98830-98830
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The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cu(2+)) but not hard metal ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu(2+) or Cd(2+) stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd(2+)) and copper (Cu(2+)) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd(2+) or Cu(2+) in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots.
- Xu H, Li Y, Yan Y, Wang K, Gao Y, Hu Y
- Genome-scale identification of soybean BURP domain-containing genes and their expression under stress treatments.
- BMC Plant Biol. 2010; 10: 197-197
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BACKGROUND: Multiple proteins containing BURP domain have been identified in many different plant species, but not in any other organisms. To date, the molecular function of the BURP domain is still unknown, and no systematic analysis and expression profiling of the gene family in soybean (Glycine max) has been reported. RESULTS: In this study, multiple bioinformatics approaches were employed to identify all the members of BURP family genes in soybean. A total of 23 BURP gene types were identified. These genes had diverse structures and were distributed on chromosome 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 18. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these BURP family genes could be classified into 5 subfamilies, and one of which defines a new subfamily, BURPV. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of transcript levels showed that 15 of the 23 genes had no expression specificity; 7 of them were specifically expressed in some of the tissues; and one of them was not expressed in any of the tissues or organs studied. The results of stress treatments showed that 17 of the 23 identified BURP family genes responded to at least one of the three stress treatments; 6 of them were not influenced by stress treatments even though a stress related cis-element was identified in the promoter region. No stress related cis-elements were found in promoter region of any BURPV member. However, qRT-PCR results indicated that all members from BURPV responded to at least one of the three stress treatments. More significantly, the members from the RD22-like subfamily showed no tissue-specific expression and they all responded to each of the three stress treatments. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified and classified all the BURP domain-containing genes in soybean. Their expression patterns in different tissues and under different stress treatments were detected using qRT-PCR. 15 out of 23 BURP genes in soybean had no tissue-specific expression, while 17 out of them were stress-responsive. The data provided an insight into the evolution of the gene family and suggested that many BURP family genes may be important for plants responding to stress conditions.
- Ko S et al.
- Solution structure of the DNA binding domain of rice telomere binding protein RTBP1.
- Biochemistry. 2009; 48: 827-38
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RTBP1 is a rice telomeric protein that binds to the duplex array of TTTAGGG repeats at chromosome ends. The DNA binding domain of RTBP1 contains a Myb-type DNA binding motif and a highly conserved C-terminal Myb extension that is unique to plant telomeric proteins. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we identified the C-terminal 110-amino acid region (RTBP1(506-615)) as the minimal telomeric DNA binding domain, suggesting that the Myb extension is required for binding plant telomeric DNA. Like other telomeric proteins such as human TRF1 and yeast Rap1, RTBP1 induced a DNA bending in the telomeric repeat sequence, suggesting that RTBP1 may play a role in establishing and/or maintaining an active telomere configuration in vivo. To elucidate the DNA binding mode of RTBP1, we determined the three-dimensional structure of RTBP1(506-615) in solution by NMR spectroscopy. The overall structure of RTBP1(506-615) is composed of four alpha-helices and stabilized by three hydrophobic patches. The second and third helices in RTBP1 form a helix-turn-helix motif that interacts directly with DNA. The fourth helix located in the Myb extension is essential for binding to telomeric DNA via stabilization of the overall structure of the RTBP1 DNA binding domain. When DNA bound to RTBP1(506-615), large chemical shift perturbations were induced in the N-terminal arm, helix 3, and the loop between helices 3 and 4. These results suggest that helix 3 functions as a sequence-specific recognition helix while the N-terminal arm stabilizes the DNA binding.
- Lu F, Li G, Cui X, Liu C, Wang XJ, Cao X
- Comparative analysis of JmjC domain-containing proteins reveals the potential histone demethylases in Arabidopsis and rice.
- J Integr Plant Biol. 2008; 50: 886-96
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Histone methylation homeostasis is achieved by controlling the balance between methylation and demethylation to maintain chromatin function and developmental regulation. In animals, a conserved Jumonji C (JmjC) domain was found in a large group of histone demethylases. However, it is still unclear whether plants also contain the JmjC domain-containing active histone demethylases. Here we performed genome-wide screen and phylogenetic analysis of JmjC domain-containing proteins in the dicot plant, Arabidopsis, and monocot plant rice, and found 21 and 20 JmjC domain-containing, respectively. We also examined the expression of JmjC domain-containing proteins and compared them to human JmjC counterparts for potential enzymatic activity. The spatial expression patterns of the Arabidopsis JmjC domain-containing genes revealed that they are all actively transcribed genes. These active plant JmjC domain-containing genes could possibly function in epigenetic regulation to antagonize the activity of the large number of putative SET domain-containing histone methyltransferase activity to dynamically regulate histone methylation homeostasis.
- van Ooijen G, Mayr G, Kasiem MM, Albrecht M, Cornelissen BJ, Takken FL
- Structure-function analysis of the NB-ARC domain of plant disease resistance proteins.
- J Exp Bot. 2008; 59: 1383-97
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Resistance (R) proteins in plants are involved in pathogen recognition and subsequent activation of innate immune responses. Most resistance proteins contain a central nucleotide-binding domain. This so-called NB-ARC domain consists of three subdomains: NB, ARC1, and ARC2. The NB-ARC domain is a functional ATPase domain, and its nucleotide-binding state is proposed to regulate activity of the R protein. A highly conserved methionine-histidine-aspartate (MHD) motif is present at the carboxy-terminus of ARC2. An extensive mutational analysis of the MHD motif in the R proteins I-2 and Mi-1 is reported. Several novel autoactivating mutations of the MHD invariant histidine and conserved aspartate were identified. The combination of MHD mutants with autoactivating hydrolysis mutants in the NB subdomain showed that the autoactivation phenotypes are not additive. This finding indicates an important regulatory role for the MHD motif in the control of R protein activity. To explain these observations, a three-dimensional model of the NB-ARC domain of I-2 was built, based on the APAF-1 template structure. The model was used to identify residues important for I-2 function. Substitution of the selected residues resulted in the expected distinct phenotypes. Based on the model, it is proposed that the MHD motif fulfils the same function as the sensor II motif found in AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities)-co-ordination of the nucleotide and control of subdomain interactions. The presented 3D model provides a framework for the formulation of hypotheses on how mutations in the NB-ARC exert their effects.
- Joosen R et al.
- Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis identifies pathways and markers associated with the establishment of rapeseed microspore-derived embryo development.
- Plant Physiol. 2007; 144: 155-72
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Microspore-derived embryo (MDE) cultures are used as a model system to study plant cell totipotency and as an in vitro system to study embryo development. We characterized and compared the transcriptome and proteome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) MDEs from the few-celled stage to the globular/heart stage using two MDE culture systems: conventional cultures in which MDEs initially develop as unorganized clusters that usually lack a suspensor, and a novel suspensor-bearing embryo culture system in which the embryo proper originates from the distal cell of a suspensor-like structure and undergoes the same ordered cell divisions as the zygotic embryo. Improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing MDEs suggests a new role for the suspensor in driving embryo cell identity and patterning. An MDE culture cDNA array and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein sequencing were used to compile global and specific expression profiles for the two types of MDE cultures. Analysis of the identities of 220 candidate embryo markers, as well as the identities of 32 sequenced embryo up-regulated protein spots, indicate general roles for protein synthesis, glycolysis, and ascorbate metabolism in the establishment of MDE development. A collection of 135 robust markers for the transition to MDE development was identified, a number of which may be coregulated at the gene and protein expression level. Comparison of the expression profiles of preglobular-stage conventional MDEs and suspensor-bearing MDEs identified genes whose differential expression may reflect improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing embryos. This collection of early embryo-expressed genes and proteins serves as a starting point for future marker development and gene function studies aimed at understanding the molecular regulation of cell totipotency and early embryo development in plants.
- Mukherjee K, Burglin TR
- MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.
- Plant Physiol. 2006; 140: 1142-50
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Homeodomain (HD) proteins play important roles in the development of plants, fungi, and animals. Here we identify a novel domain, MEKHLA, in the C terminus of HD-Leu zipper (HD-ZIP) III plant HD proteins that shares similarity with a group of bacterial proteins and a protein from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The group of bacterial MEKHLA proteins is found in cyanobacteria and other bacteria often found associated with plants. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that a MEKHLA protein transferred, possibly from a cyanobacterium or an early chloroplast, into the nuclear genome of an early plant in a first step, and attached itself to the C terminus of an HD-ZIP IV homeobox gene in a second step. Further position-specific iterated-BLAST searches with the bacterial MEKHLA proteins revealed a subregion within the MEKHLA domain that shares significant similarity with the PAS domain. The PAS domain is a sensory module found in many proteins through all kingdoms of life. It is involved in light, oxygen, and redox potential sensation. The fact that HD-ZIP III proteins are transcription factors that have this sensory domain attached to their C terminus uncovers a potential new signaling pathway in plants.
- Forsthoefel NR, Cutler K, Port MD, Yamamoto T, Vernon DM
- PIRLs: a novel class of plant intracellular leucine-rich repeat proteins.
- Plant Cell Physiol. 2005; 46: 913-22
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Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins feature tandem leucine-rich motifs that form a protein-protein interaction domain. Plants contain diverse classes of LRR proteins, many of which take part in signal transduction. We have identified a novel family of nine Arabidopsis LRR proteins that, based on predicted intracellular location and LRR motif consensus sequence, are related to Ras-binding LRR proteins found in signaling complexes in animals and yeast. This new class has been named plant intracellular Ras group-related LRR proteins (PIRLs). We have characterized PIRL cDNAs, rigorously defined gene and protein annotations, investigated gene family evolution and surveyed mRNA expression. While LRR regions suggested a relationship to Ras group LRR proteins, outside of their LRR domains PIRLs differed from Ras group proteins, exhibiting N- and C-terminal regions containing low complexity stretches and clusters of charged amino acids. PIRL genes grouped into three subfamilies based on sequence relationships and gene structures. Related gene pairs and dispersed chromosomal locations suggested family expansion by ancestral genomic or segmental duplications. Expression surveys revealed that all PIRL mRNAs are actively transcribed, with three expressed differentially in leaves, roots or flowers. These results define PIRLs as a distinct, plant-specific class of intracellular LRR proteins that probably mediate protein interactions, possibly in the context of signal transduction. T-DNA knock-out mutants have been isolated as a starting point for systematic functional analysis of this intriguing family.
- Balaji S, Babu MM, Iyer LM, Aravind L
- Discovery of the principal specific transcription factors of Apicomplexa and their implication for the evolution of the AP2-integrase DNA binding domains.
- Nucleic Acids Res. 2005; 33: 3994-4006
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The comparative genomics of apicomplexans, such as the malarial parasite Plasmodium, the cattle parasite Theileria and the emerging human parasite Cryptosporidium, have suggested an unexpected paucity of specific transcription factors (TFs) with DNA binding domains that are closely related to those found in the major families of TFs from other eukaryotes. This apparent lack of specific TFs is paradoxical, given that the apicomplexans show a complex developmental cycle in one or more hosts and a reproducible pattern of differential gene expression in course of this cycle. Using sensitive sequence profile searches, we show that the apicomplexans possess a lineage-specific expansion of a novel family of proteins with a version of the AP2 (Apetala2)-integrase DNA binding domain, which is present in numerous plant TFs. About 20-27 members of this apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family are encoded in different apicomplexan genomes, with each protein containing one to four copies of the AP2 DNA binding domain. Using gene expression data from Plasmodium falciparum, we show that guilds of ApiAP2 genes are expressed in different stages of intraerythrocytic development. By analogy to the plant AP2 proteins and based on the expression patterns, we predict that the ApiAP2 proteins are likely to function as previously unknown specific TFs in the apicomplexans and regulate the progression of their developmental cycle. In addition to the ApiAP2 family, we also identified two other novel families of AP2 DNA binding domains in bacteria and transposons. Using structure similarity searches, we also identified divergent versions of the AP2-integrase DNA binding domain fold in the DNA binding region of the PI-SceI homing endonuclease and the C-terminal domain of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-like modules of eukaryotes. Integrating these findings, we present a reconstruction of the evolutionary scenario of the AP2-integrase DNA binding domain fold, which suggests that it underwent multiple independent combinations with different types of mobile endonucleases or recombinases. It appears that the eukaryotic versions have emerged from versions of the domain associated with mobile elements, followed by independent lineage-specific expansions, which accompanied their recruitment to transcription regulation functions.
- Acher FC, Bertrand HO
- Amino acid recognition by Venus flytrap domains is encoded in an 8-residue motif.
- Biopolymers. 2005; 80: 357-66
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A motif foramino acid recognition by proteins or domains of the periplasmic binding protein-like I superfamily has been identified. An initial pattern of 5 residues was based on a multiple sequence alignment of selected proteins of that fold family and on common structural features observed in the crystal structure of some members of the family [leucine isoleucine valine binding protein (LIVBP), leucine binding protein (LBP), and metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGlu1R) amino terminal domain)]. This pattern was used against the PIR-NREF sequence database and further refined to retrieve all sequences of proteins that belong to the family and eliminate those that do not belong to it. A motif of 8 residues was finally selected to build up the general signature. A total of 232 sequences were retrieved. They were found to belong to only three families of proteins: bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBP, 71 sequences), family 3 (or C) of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) (146 sequences), and plant putative ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR, 15 sequences). PBPs are known to adopt a bilobate structure also named Venus flytrap domain, or LIVBP domain in the present case. Family 3/C GPCRs are also known to hold such a domain. However, for plant iGluRs, it was previously detected by classical similarity searches but not specifically described. Thus plant iGluRs carry two Venus flytrap domains, one that binds glutamate and an additional one that would be a modulatory LIVBP domain. In some cases, the modulator binding to that domain would be an amino acid.
- Wang A, Xia Q, Xie W, Datla R, Selvaraj G
- The classical Ubisch bodies carry a sporophytically produced structural protein (RAFTIN) that is essential for pollen development.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100: 14487-92
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Pollen fecundity is crucial to crop productivity and also to biodiversity in general. Pollen development is supported by the tapetum, a metabolically active sporophytic nurse layer that devotes itself to this process. The tapetum in cereals and a vast majority of other plants is of the nonamoeboid type. Unable to reach out to microspores, it secretes nutrients into the anther locule where the microspores reside and develop. Orbicules (Ubisch bodies), studied in various plants since their discovery approximately 140 years ago, are a hallmark of the secretory tapetum. Their significance to tapetal or pollen development has not been established. We have identified in wheat and rice an anther-specific single-copy gene (per haploid genome equivalent) whose suppression in rice by RNA interference nearly eliminated the seed set. The flowers in the transgenics were normal for female functions, but the pollen collapsed and became less viable. Further characterization of the gene product, named RAFTIN, in wheat has shown that it is present in pro-orbicule bodies and it is accumulated in Ubisch bodies. Furthermore, it is targeted to microspore exine. Although the carboxyl portion of RAFTINs shares short, dispersed amino acid sequences (BURP domain) in common with a variety of proteins of disparate biological contexts, the occurrence RAFTIN per se is limited to cereals; neither the Arabidopsis genome nor the vast collection of ESTs suggests any obvious dicot homologs. Furthermore, our results show that RAFTIN is essential for the late phase of pollen development in cereals.
- Takezawa D
- Characterization of a novel plant PP2C-like protein Ser/Thr phosphatase as a calmodulin-binding protein.
- J Biol Chem. 2003; 278: 38076-83
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Protein phosphatases regulated by calmodulin (CaM) mediate the action of intracellular Ca2+ and modulate functions of various target proteins by dephosphorylation. In plants, however, the role of Ca2+ in the regulation of protein dephosphorylation is not well understood due to a lack of information on characteristics of CaM-regulated protein phosphatases. Screening of a cDNA library of the moss Physcomitrella patens by using 35S-labeled calmodulin as a ligand resulted in identification of a gene, PCaMPP, that encodes a protein serine/threonine phosphatase with 373 amino acids. PCaMPP had a catalytic domain with sequence similarity to type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) with six conserved metal-associating amino acid residues and also had an extra C-terminal domain. Recombinant GST fusion proteins of PCaMPP exhibited Mn2+-dependent phosphatase activity, and the activity was inhibited by pyrophosphate and 1 mm Ca2+ but not by okadaic acid, orthovanadate, or beta-glycerophosphate. Furthermore, the PCaMPP activity was increased 1.7-fold by addition of CaM at nanomolar concentrations. CaM binding assays using deletion proteins and a synthetic peptide revealed that the CaM-binding region resides within the basic amphiphilic amino acid region 324-346 in the C-terminal domain. The CaM-binding region had sequence similarity to amino acids in one of three alpha-helices in the C-terminal domain of human PP2Calpha, suggesting a novel role of the C-terminal domains for the phosphatase activity. These results provide the first evidence showing possible regulation of PP2C-related phosphatases by Ca2+/CaM in plants. Genes similar to PCaMPP were found in genomes of various higher plant species, suggesting that PCaMPP-type protein phosphatases are conserved in land plants.
- Krushkal J, Pistilli M, Ferrell KM, Souret FF, Weathers PJ
- Computational analysis of the evolution of the structure and function of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, a key regulator of the mevalonate-independent pathway in plants.
- Gene. 2003; 313: 127-38
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We investigated molecular evolution of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), an important regulatory enzyme of the mevalonate-independent pathway involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. Sequence alignment showed that some regions, likely to be functionally important, were highly conserved among all of the plant DXS sequences analysed. Phylogenetic trees were inferred using DXS sequences from 11 species of Angiosperms and showed the division of the sequences into two classes. Clustering of DXS sequences did not correspond to phylogenetic relationships among the plant species studied. There was no consistency in the similarity of the variable regions in the secondary structure of the DXS functional protein except for Capsicum and Lycopersicon, both members of the Solanaceae. Hydrophobicity plots for the functional region of DXS revealed great similarity in their hydrophobic structure, consistent with the phylogenetic trees inferred, and with eight prominent hydrophilic and hydrophobic peaks. We also observed a consistent set of features common to the DXS transit peptides studied. These features were the same hydrophobic slope, a hydrophobic region in residues 35-45, and, in eight of 12 sequences, a Pro-Pro-Thr sequence at the C-terminal end. The transit sequences are likely bipartite and contain features that suggest the DXS protein is not only targeted to the chloroplast, but also to the thylakoid. To our knowledge this is the first suggestion that DXS is located specifically in the chloroplast thylakoid.
- Hilbricht T, Salamini F, Bartels D
- CpR18, a novel SAP-domain plant transcription factor, binds to a promoter region necessary for ABA mediated expression of the CDeT27-45 gene from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst.
- Plant J. 2002; 31: 293-303
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CDeT27-45 is a lea-like gene from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum (Scrophulariaceae) which is strongly expressed in vegetative tissues in response to dehydration or treatment with abscisic acid (ABA). Expression of the gene is correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Nuclear proteins bind to a 29-bp cis-regulatory region of the promoter which is essential for transcriptional activation of the CDeT27-45 gene by ABA. Using a yeast one-hybrid screen, the cDNA clone CpR18 was isolated, which encodes a protein with specific binding activity for the cis-regulatory element in the CDeT27-45 promoter. The protein contains an acidic region, a SAP-domain, a zinc finger of the C3H-type, and two motifs which are conserved in proteins from several plant species. One of the conserved regions is rich in basic residues and is predicted to form a helix-loop-helix structure. The R18 gene shows high similarities to genomic sequences and ESTs from other plant species. The tissue-specific expression pattern of the rare R18 mRNA and the distribution of nuclear protein binding activity for the CDeT27-45 promoter fragment are compared. The R18 protein is indeed localized in the nucleus, and activates transcription of CDeT27-45 promoter-GUS fusion constructs in tobacco protoplasts. DNA blot analysis and isolation of genomic clones reveal that two copies of R18 are present in the C. plantagineum genome.
- Granger C, Coryell V, Khanna A, Keim P, Vodkin L, Shoemaker RC
- Identification, structure, and differential expression of members of a BURP domain containing protein family in soybean.
- Genome. 2002; 45: 693-701
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Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) exhibiting homology to a BURP domain containing gene family were identified from the Glycine max (L.) Merr. EST database. These ESTs were assembled into 16 contigs of variable sizes and lengths. Consistent with the structure of known BURP domain containing proteins, the translation products exhibit a modular structure consisting of a C-terminal BURP domain, an N-terminal signal sequence, and a variable internal region. The soybean family members exhibit 35-98% similarity in a -100-amino-acid C-terminal region, and a phylogenetic tree constructed using this region shows that some soybean family members group together in closely related pairs, triplets, and quartets, whereas others remain as singletons. The structure of these groups suggests that multiple gene duplication events occurred during the evolutionary history of this family. The depth and diversity of G. max EST libraries allowed tissue-specific expression patterns of the putative soybean BURPs to be examined. Consistent with known BURP proteins, the newly identified soybean BURPs have diverse expression patterns. Furthermore, putative paralogs can have both spatially and quantitatively distinct expression patterns. We discuss the functional and evolutionary implications of these findings, as well as the utility of EST-based analyses for identifying and characterizing gene families.
- Day IS, Miller C, Golovkin M, Reddy AS
- Interaction of a kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein with a protein kinase.
- J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 13737-45
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Kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) is a novel member of the kinesin superfamily that is involved in cell division and trichome morphogenesis. KCBP is unique among all known kinesins in having a myosin tail homology-4 region in the N-terminal tail and a calmodulin-binding region following the motor domain. Calcium, through calmodulin, has been shown to negatively regulate the interaction of KCBP with microtubules. Here we have used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify the proteins that interact with the tail region of KCBP. A protein kinase (KCBP-interacting protein kinase (KIPK)) was found to interact specifically with the tail region of KCBP. KIPK is related to a group of protein kinases specific to plants that has an additional sequence between subdomains VII and VIII of the conserved C-terminal catalytic domain and an extensive N-terminal region. The catalytic domain alone of KIPK interacted weakly with the N-terminal KCBP protein but strongly with full-length KCBP, whereas the noncatalytic region did not interact with either protein. The interaction of KCBP with KIPK was confirmed using coprecipitation assays. Using bacterially expressed full-length and truncated proteins, we have shown that the catalytic domain is capable of phosphorylating itself. The association of KIPK with KCBP suggests regulation of KCBP or KCBP-associated proteins by phosphorylation and/or that KCBP is involved in targeting KIPK to its proper cellular location.
- Rose A, Meier I, Wienand U
- The tomato I-box binding factor LeMYBI is a member of a novel class of myb-like proteins.
- Plant J. 1999; 20: 641-52
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The RBCS3A gene of tomato belongs to a small gene family consisting of five members. Although the RBCS1, RBCS2 and RBCS3A promoters contain closely related cis regulatory sequences, the expression patterns of the genes are different. Whereas the RBCS1 and RBCS2 genes are expressed in both leaves and young fruit, the RBCS3A promoter is highly active in leaves, but not in young fruit. This lack of transcription could be due to a mutation in the RBCS3A promoter creating the so-called F-box, a protein binding site located between the activating cis elements, the I-box and G-box. In order to identify proteins that bind to the RBCS3A I-box/F-box region, the yeast one-hybrid system was used. One clone, LeMYBI was isolated which contains strong similarity to plant myb transcription factors. The encoded LeMYBI protein is at least 188 amino acids in length and contains two myb-like domains located at the amino terminus and close to the carboxy terminus, separated by a negatively charged domain. The protein contains a SHAQKYF amino acid signature motif in the second myb-like repeat, which is highly conserved in a number of recently identified plant myb-related genes, thus defining a new class of plant DNA-binding proteins. LeMYBI binds specifically to the I-box sequence of the RBCS1, RBCS2 and RBCS3A promoters, therefore representing the first cloned I-box binding factor. LeMYBI acts as a transcriptional activator in yeast and plants, and binds to the I-box with a DNA-binding domain located in the carboxyterminal domain.