Secondary literature sources for CAMSAP_CKK
The following references were automatically generated.
- Hendershott MC, Vale RD
- Regulation of microtubule minus-end dynamics by CAMSAPs and Patronin.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111: 5860-5
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The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton plays an essential role in mitosis, intracellular transport, cell shape, and cell migration. The assembly and disassembly of MTs, which can occur through the addition or loss of subunits at the plus- or minus-ends of the polymer, is essential for MTs to carry out their biological functions. A variety of proteins act on MT ends to regulate their dynamics, including a recently described family of MT minus-end binding proteins called calmodulin-regulated spectrin-associated protein (CAMSAP)/Patronin/Nezha. Patronin, the single member of this family in Drosophila, was previously shown to stabilize MT minus-ends against depolymerization in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that all three mammalian CAMSAP family members also bind specifically to MT minus-ends and protect them against kinesin-13-induced depolymerization. However, these proteins differ in their abilities to suppress tubulin addition at minus-ends and to dissociate from MTs. CAMSAP1 does not interfere with polymerization and tracks along growing minus-ends. CAMSAP2 and CAMSAP3 decrease the rate of tubulin incorporation and remain bound, thereby creating stretches of decorated MT minus-ends. By using truncation analysis, we find that somewhat different minimal domains of CAMSAP and Patronin are involved in minus-end localization. However, we find that, in both cases, a highly conserved C-terminal domain and a more variable central domain cooperate to suppress minus-end dynamics in vitro and that both regions are required to stabilize minus-ends in Drosophila S2 cells. These results show that members of the CAMSAP/Patronin family all localize to and protect minus-ends but have evolved distinct effects on MT dynamics.
- Marcette JD, Chen JJ, Nonet ML
- The Caenorhabditis elegans microtubule minus-end binding homolog PTRN-1 stabilizes synapses and neurites.
- Elife. 2014; 3: 1637-1637
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Microtubule dynamics facilitate neurite growth and establish morphology, but the role of minus-end binding proteins in these processes is largely unexplored. CAMSAP homologs associate with microtubule minus-ends, and are important for the stability of epithelial cell adhesions. In this study, we report morphological defects in neurons and neuromuscular defects in mutants of the C. elegans CAMSAP, ptrn-1. Mechanosensory neurons initially extend wild-type neurites, and subsequently remodel by overextending neurites and retracting synaptic branches and presynaptic varicosities. This neuronal remodeling can be activated by mutations known to alter microtubules, and depends on a functioning DLK-1 MAP kinase pathway. We found that PTRN-1 localizes to both neurites and synapses, and our results suggest that alterations of microtubule structures caused by loss of PTRN-1 function activates a remodeling program leading to changes in neurite morphology. We propose a model whereby minus-end microtubule stabilization mediated by a functional PTRN-1 is necessary for morphological maintenance of neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01637.001.
- Muthu M, Richardson KA, Sutherland-Smith AJ
- The crystal structures of dystrophin and utrophin spectrin repeats: implications for domain boundaries.
- PLoS One. 2012; 7: 40066-40066
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Dystrophin and utrophin link the F-actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane via an associated glycoprotein complex. This functionality results from their domain organization having an N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by multiple spectrin-repeat domains and then C-terminal protein-binding motifs. Therapeutic strategies to replace defective dystrophin with utrophin in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy require full-characterization of both these proteins to assess their degree of structural and functional equivalence. Here the high resolution structures of the first spectrin repeats (N-terminal repeat 1) from both dystrophin and utrophin have been determined by x-ray crystallography. The repeat structures both display a three-helix bundle fold very similar to one another and to homologous domains from spectrin, alpha-actinin and plectin. The utrophin and dystrophin repeat structures reveal the relationship between the structural domain and the canonical spectrin repeat domain sequence motif, showing the compact structural domain of spectrin repeat one to be extended at the C-terminus relative to its previously defined sequence repeat. These structures explain previous in vitro biochemical studies in which extending dystrophin spectrin repeat domain length leads to increased protein stability. Furthermore we show that the first dystrophin and utrophin spectrin repeats have no affinity for F-actin in the absence of other domains.
- Wang C, Yu C, Ye F, Wei Z, Zhang M
- Structure of the ZU5-ZU5-UPA-DD tandem of ankyrin-B reveals interaction surfaces necessary for ankyrin function.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109: 4822-7
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Ankyrin-R/B/G (encoded by ANK1/2/3, respectively) are a family of very large scaffold proteins capable of anchoring numerous receptors and ion channels to specific, spectrin-containing membrane micro-domains. Hereditary mutations of ankyrins are known to be associated with diseases including spherocytosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and bipolar disorder in humans, although the underlying molecular bases are poorly understood. The middle spectrin-binding domain of ankyrins contains highly conserved ZU5-ZU5-UPA-DD domains arranged into the ZZUD tandem. Curiously, most of the disease-causing mutations in the tandem have no apparent impact on the spectrin binding of ankyrins. The high resolution structure of the ankyrin-B ZZUD tandem determined here reveals that the ZU5-ZU5-UPA domains form a tightly packed structural supramodule, whereas DD is freely accessible. Although the formation of the ZZU supramodule does not influence the spectrin binding of ankyrins, mutations altering the interdomain interfaces of ZZU impair the functions of ankyrin-B&G. Our structural analysis further indicates that the ZZU supramodule of ankyrins has two additional surfaces that may bind to targets other than spectrin. Finally, the structure of the ankyrin ZZUD provides mechanistic explanations to many disease-causing mutations identified in ankyrin-B&R.
- Cho K et al.
- Xenopus Kazrin interacts with ARVCF-catenin, spectrin and p190B RhoGAP, and modulates RhoA activity and epithelial integrity.
- J Cell Sci. 2010; 123: 4128-44
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In common with other p120-catenin subfamily members, Xenopus ARVCF (xARVCF) binds cadherin cytoplasmic domains to enhance cadherin metabolic stability or, when dissociated, modulates Rho-family GTPases. We report here that xARVCF binds and is stabilized by Xenopus KazrinA (xKazrinA), a widely expressed conserved protein that bears little homology to established protein families, and which is known to influence keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and cytoskeletal activity. Although we found that xKazrinA binds directly to xARVCF, we did not resolve xKazrinA within a larger ternary complex with cadherin, nor did it co-precipitate with core desmosomal components. Instead, screening revealed that xKazrinA binds spectrin, suggesting a potential means by which xKazrinA localizes to cell-cell borders. This was supported by the resolution of a ternary biochemical complex of xARVCF-xKazrinA-xbeta2-spectrin and, in vivo, by the finding that ectodermal shedding followed depletion of xKazrin in Xenopus embryos, a phenotype partially rescued with exogenous xARVCF. Cell shedding appeared to be the consequence of RhoA activation, and thereby altered actin organization and cadherin function. Indeed, we also revealed that xKazrinA binds p190B RhoGAP, which was likewise capable of rescuing Kazrin depletion. Finally, xKazrinA was found to associate with delta-catenins and p0071-catenins but not with p120-catenin, suggesting that Kazrin interacts selectively with additional members of the p120-catenin subfamily. Taken together, our study supports the essential role of Kazrin in development, and reveals the biochemical and functional association of KazrinA with ARVCF-catenin, spectrin and p190B RhoGAP.
- Goodwin SS, Vale RD
- Patronin regulates the microtubule network by protecting microtubule minus ends.
- Cell. 2010; 143: 263-74
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Tubulin assembles into microtubule polymers that have distinct plus and minus ends. Most microtubule plus ends in living cells are dynamic; the transitions between growth and shrinkage are regulated by assembly-promoting and destabilizing proteins. In contrast, minus ends are generally not dynamic, suggesting their stabilization by some unknown protein. Here, we have identified Patronin (also known as ssp4) as a protein that stabilizes microtubule minus ends in Drosophila S2 cells. In the absence of Patronin, minus ends lose subunits through the actions of the Kinesin-13 microtubule depolymerase, leading to a sparse interphase microtubule array and short, disorganized mitotic spindles. In vitro, the selective binding of purified Patronin to microtubule minus ends is sufficient to protect them against Kinesin-13-induced depolymerization. We propose that Patronin caps and stabilizes microtubule minus ends, an activity that serves a critical role in the organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton.
- Young KG, Thurston SF, Copeland S, Smallwood C, Copeland JW
- INF1 is a novel microtubule-associated formin.
- Mol Biol Cell. 2008; 19: 5168-80
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Formin proteins, characterized by the presence of conserved formin homology (FH) domains, play important roles in cytoskeletal regulation via their abilities to nucleate actin filament formation and to interact with multiple other proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation. The C-terminal FH2 domain of formins is key for actin filament interactions and has been implicated in playing a role in interactions with microtubules. Inverted formin 1 (INF1) is unusual among the formin family in having the conserved FH1 and FH2 domains in its N-terminal half, with its C-terminal half being composed of a unique polypeptide sequence. In this study, we have examined a potential role for INF1 in regulating microtubule structure. INF1 associates discretely with microtubules, and this association is dependent on a novel C-terminal microtubule-binding domain. INF1 expressed in fibroblast cells induced actin stress fiber formation, coalignment of microtubules with actin filaments, and the formation of bundled, acetylated microtubules. Endogenous INF1 showed an association with acetylated microtubules, and knockdown of INF1 resulted in decreased levels of acetylated microtubules. Our data suggests a role for INF1 in microtubule modification and potentially in coordinating microtubule and F-actin structure.
- Wong J, Lerrigo R, Jang CY, Fang G
- Aurora A regulates the activity of HURP by controlling the accessibility of its microtubule-binding domain.
- Mol Biol Cell. 2008; 19: 2083-91
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HURP is a spindle-associated protein that mediates Ran-GTP-dependent assembly of the bipolar spindle and promotes chromosome congression and interkinetochore tension during mitosis. We report here a biochemical mechanism of HURP regulation by Aurora A, a key mitotic kinase that controls the assembly and function of the spindle. We found that HURP binds to microtubules through its N-terminal domain that hyperstabilizes spindle microtubules. Ectopic expression of this domain generates defects in spindle morphology and function that reduce the level of tension across sister kinetochores and activate the spindle checkpoint. Interestingly, the microtubule binding activity of this N-terminal domain is regulated by the C-terminal region of HURP: in its hypophosphorylated state, C-terminal HURP associates with the microtubule-binding domain, abrogating its affinity for microtubules. However, when the C-terminal domain is phosphorylated by Aurora A, it no longer binds to N-terminal HURP, thereby releasing the inhibition on its microtubule binding and stabilizing activity. In fact, ectopic expression of this C-terminal domain depletes endogenous HURP from the mitotic spindle in HeLa cells in trans, suggesting the physiological importance for this mode of regulation. We concluded that phosphorylation of HURP by Aurora A provides a regulatory mechanism for the control of spindle assembly and function.
- Ogawa-Goto K et al.
- p180 is involved in the interaction between the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules through a novel microtubule-binding and bundling domain.
- Mol Biol Cell. 2007; 18: 3741-51
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p180 was originally reported as a ribosome-binding protein on the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane, although its precise role in animal cells has not yet been elucidated. Here, we characterized a new function of human p180 as a microtubule-binding and -modulating protein. Overexpression of p180 in mammalian cells induced an elongated morphology and enhanced acetylated microtubules. Consistently, electron microscopic analysis clearly revealed microtubule bundles in p180-overexpressing cells. Targeted depletion of endogenous p180 by small interfering RNAs led to aberrant patterns of microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum in mammalian cells, suggesting a specific interaction between p180 and microtubules. In vitro sedimentation assays using recombinant polypeptides revealed that p180 bound to microtubules directly and possessed a novel microtubule-binding domain (designated MTB-1). MTB-1 consists of a predicted coiled-coil region and repeat domain, and strongly promoted bundle formation both in vitro and in vivo when expressed alone. Overexpression of p180 induced acetylated microtubules in cultured cells in an MTB-1-dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that p180 mediates interactions between the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules mainly through the novel microtubule-binding and -bundling domain MTB-1.
- Bhattacharya M, Mukhopadhyay C, Chakrabarti A
- Specificity of Prodan for the self-associating domain of spectrin: a molecular docking study.
- J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2006; 24: 269-76
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The hydrophobic fluorescent probe Prodan binds to the self-associating domain of spectrin with 1:1 stoichiometry. A model of the self-associating domain was generated based on its homology with other domains of spectrin. Prodan was then docked onto the model, and several sites with low interaction energy were identified. To verify whether the binding of Prodan is specific towards the self-associating domain of spectrin, it was docked on to several other domains of spectrin, having a known three-dimensional structure. Analysis of the docking results suggests that the binding of Prodan to the self-associating domain of spectrin will involve hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups of Prodan. The results clearly indicate the preference of Prodan for a particular binding site of the self-associating domain.
- Krauss SW, Lee G, Chasis JA, Mohandas N, Heald R
- Two protein 4.1 domains essential for mitotic spindle and aster microtubule dynamics and organization in vitro.
- J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 27591-8
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Multifunctional structural proteins belonging to the 4.1 family are components of nuclei, spindles, and centrosomes in vertebrate cells. Here we report that 4.1 is critical for spindle assembly and the formation of centrosome-nucleated and motor-dependent self-organized microtubule asters in metaphase-arrested Xenopus egg extracts. Immunodepletion of 4.1 disrupted microtubule arrays and mislocalized the spindle pole protein NuMA. Remarkably, assembly was completely rescued by supplementation with a recombinant 4.1R isoform. We identified two 4.1 domains critical for its function in microtubule polymerization and organization utilizing dominant negative peptides. The 4.1 spectrin-actin binding domain or NuMA binding C-terminal domain peptides caused morphologically disorganized structures. Control peptides with low homology or variant spectrin-actin binding domain peptides that were incapable of binding actin had no deleterious effects. Unexpectedly, the addition of C-terminal domain peptides with reduced NuMA binding caused severe microtubule destabilization in extracts, dramatically inhibiting aster and spindle assembly and also depolymerizing preformed structures. However, the mutant C-terminal peptides did not directly inhibit or destabilize microtubule polymerization from pure tubulin in a microtubule pelleting assay. Our data showing that 4.1 is a crucial factor for assembly and maintenance of mitotic spindles and self-organized and centrosome-nucleated microtubule asters indicates that 4.1 is involved in regulating both microtubule dynamics and organization. These investigations underscore an important functional context for protein 4.1 in microtubule morphogenesis and highlight a previously unappreciated role for 4.1 in cell division.
- Anantharaman V, Aravind L
- Novel conserved domains in proteins with predicted roles in eukaryotic cell-cycle regulation, decapping and RNA stability.
- BMC Genomics. 2004; 5: 45-45
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BACKGROUND: The emergence of eukaryotes was characterized by the expansion and diversification of several ancient RNA-binding domains and the apparent de novo innovation of new RNA-binding domains. The identification of these RNA-binding domains may throw light on the emergence of eukaryote-specific systems of RNA metabolism. RESULTS: Using sensitive sequence profile searches, homology-based fold recognition and sequence-structure superpositions, we identified novel, divergent versions of the Sm domain in the Scd6p family of proteins. This family of Sm-related domains shares certain features of conventional Sm domains, which are required for binding RNA, in addition to possessing some unique conserved features. We also show that these proteins contain a second previously uncharacterized C-terminal domain, termed the FDF domain (after a conserved sequence motif in this domain). The FDF domain is also found in the fungal Dcp3p-like and the animal FLJ22128-like proteins, where it fused to a C-terminal domain of the YjeF-N domain family. In addition to the FDF domains, the FLJ22128-like proteins contain yet another divergent version of the Sm domain at their extreme N-terminus. We show that the YjeF-N domains represent a novel version of the Rossmann fold that has acquired a set of catalytic residues and structural features that distinguish them from the conventional dehydrogenases. CONCLUSIONS: Several lines of contextual information suggest that the Scd6p family and the Dcp3p-like proteins are conserved components of the eukaryotic RNA metabolism system. We propose that the novel domains reported here, namely the divergent versions of the Sm domain and the FDF domain may mediate specific RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions in cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes. More specifically, the protein complexes containing Sm-like domains of the Scd6p family are predicted to regulate the stability of mRNA encoding proteins involved in cell cycle progression and vesicular assembly. The Dcp3p and FLJ22128 proteins may localize to the cytoplasmic processing bodies and possibly catalyze a specific processing step in the decapping pathway. The explosive diversification of Sm domains appears to have played a role in the emergence of several uniquely eukaryotic ribonucleoprotein complexes, including those involved in decapping and mRNA stability.
- Enunlu I, Papai G, Cserpan I, Udvardy A, Jeang KT, Boros I
- Different isoforms of PRIP-interacting protein with methyltransferase domain/trimethylguanosine synthase localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus.
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003; 309: 44-51
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A protein family including the recently identified PIMT/Tgs1 (PRIP-interacting protein with methyltransferase domain/trimethylguanosine synthase) was identified by searching databases for homologues of a newly identified Drosophila protein with RNA-binding activity and methyltransferase domain. Antibodies raised against a short peptide of the mammalian homologue show a 90-kDa isoform expressed specifically in rat brain and testis and a 55-kDa form expressed ubiquitously. In HeLa cells, the larger isoform of the protein is nuclear and associated with a 600-kDa complex, while the smaller isoform is mainly cytoplasmic and co-localizes to the tubulin network. Inhibition of PIMT/Tgs1 expression by siRNA in HeLa cells resulted in an increase in the percentage of cells in G2/M phases. In yeast two-hybrid and in vitro GST pull down experiments, the conserved C-terminal region of PIMT/Tgs1 interacted with the WD domain containing EED/WAIT-1 that acts as a polycomb-type repressor in the nucleus and also binds to integrins in the cytoplasm. Our experiments, together with earlier data, indicate that isoforms of the PIMT/Tgs1 protein with an RNA methyltransferase domain function both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm and associate with both elements of the cytoskeletal network and nuclear factors known to be involved in gene regulation.
- Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V
- Adducin: structure, function and regulation.
- Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000; 57: 884-95
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Adducin is a ubiquitously expressed membrane-skeletal protein localized at spectrin-actin junctions that binds calmodulin and is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C (PKC) and Rho-associated kinase. Adducin is a tetramer comprised of either alpha/beta or alpha/gamma heterodimers. Adducin subunits are related in sequence and all contain an N-terminal globular head domain, a neck domain and a C-terminal protease-sensitive tail domain. The tail domains of all adducin subunits end with a highly conserved 22-residue myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS)-related domain that has homology to MARCKS protein. Adducin caps the fast-growing ends of actin filaments and also preferentially recruits spectrin to the ends of filaments. Both the neck and the MARCKS-related domains are required for these activities. The neck domain self-associates to form oligomers. The MARCKS-related domain binds calmodulin and contains the major phosphorylation site for PKC. Calmodulin, gelsolin and phosphorylation by the kinase inhibit in vitro activities of adducin involving actin and spectrin. Recent observations suggest a role for adducin in cell motility, and as a target for regulation by Rho-dependent and Ca2+-dependent pathways. Prominent physiological sites of regulation of adducin include dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons, platelets and growth cones of axons.
- Drum CL et al.
- An extended conformation of calmodulin induces interactions between the structural domains of adenylyl cyclase from Bacillus anthracis to promote catalysis.
- J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 36334-40
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The edema factor exotoxin produced by Bacillus anthracis is an adenylyl cyclase that is activated by calmodulin (CaM) at resting state calcium concentrations in infected cells. A C-terminal 60-kDa fragment corresponding to the catalytic domain of edema factor (EF3) was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. The N-terminal 43-kDa domain (EF3-N) of EF3, the sole domain of edema factor homologous to adenylyl cyclases from Bordetella pertussis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is highly resistant to protease digestion. The C-terminal 160-amino acid domain (EF3-C) of EF3 is sensitive to proteolysis in the absence of CaM. The addition of CaM protects EF3-C from being digested by proteases. EF3-N and EF3-C were expressed separately, and both fragments were required to reconstitute full CaM-sensitive enzyme activity. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments using a double-labeled CaM molecule were performed and indicated that CaM adopts an extended conformation upon binding to EF3. This contrasts sharply with the compact conformation adopted by CaM upon binding myosin light chain kinase and CaM-dependent protein kinase type II. Mutations in each of the four calcium binding sites of CaM were examined for their effect on EF3 activation. Sites 3 and 4 were found critical for the activation, and neither the N- nor the C-terminal domain of CaM alone was capable of activating EF3. A genetic screen probing loss-of-function mutations of EF3 and site-directed mutations based on the homology of the edema factor family revealed a conserved pair of aspartate residues and an arginine that are important for catalysis. Similar residues are essential for di-metal-mediated catalysis in mammalian adenylyl cyclases and a family of DNA polymerases and nucleotidyltransferases. This suggests that edema factor may utilize a similar catalytic mechanism.
- Beinhauer JD, Hagan IM, Hegemann JH, Fleig U
- Mal3, the fission yeast homologue of the human APC-interacting protein EB-1 is required for microtubule integrity and the maintenance of cell form.
- J Cell Biol. 1997; 139: 717-28
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Through a screen designed to isolate novel fission yeast genes required for chromosome segregation, we have identified mal3+. The mal3-1 mutation decreased the transmission fidelity of a nonessential minichromosome and altered sensitivity to microtubule-destabilizing drugs. Sequence analysis revealed that the 35-kD Mal3 is a member of an evolutionary conserved protein family. Its human counterpart EB-1 was identified in an interaction screen with the tumour suppressor protein APC. EB-1 was able to substitute for the complete loss of the mal3+ gene product suggesting that the two proteins might have similar functions. Cells containing a mal3 null allele were viable but showed a variety of phenotypes, including impaired control of cell shape. A fusion protein of Mal3 with the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein led to in vivo visualization of both cytoplasmic and mitotic microtubule structures indicating association of Mal3 with microtubules. The absence of Mal3 protein led to abnormally short, often faint cytoplasmic microtubules as seen by indirect antitubulin immunofluorescence. While loss of the mal3+ gene product had no gross effect on mitotic spindle morphology, overexpression of mal3+ compromised spindle formation and function and led to severe growth inhibition and abnormal cell morphology. We propose that Mal3 plays a role in regulating the integrity of microtubules possibly by influencing their stability.
- Reddy AS, Narasimhulu SB, Safadi F, Golovkin M
- A plant kinesin heavy chain-like protein is a calmodulin-binding protein.
- Plant J. 1996; 10: 9-21
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Calmodulin, a calcium modulated protein, regulates the activity of several proteins that control cellular functions. A cDNA encoding a unique calmodulin-binding protein, PKCBP, was isolated from a potato expression library using protein-protein interaction based screening. The cDNA encoded protein bound to biotinylated calmodulin and 35S-labeled calmodulin in the presence of calcium and failed to bind in the presence of EGTA, a calcium chelator. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PKCBP has a domain of about 340 amino acids in the C-terminus that showed significant sequence similarity with the kinesin heavy chain motor domain and contained conserved ATP- and microtubule-binding sites present in the motor domain of all known kinesin heavy chains. Outside the motor domain, the PKCBP showed no sequence similarity with any of the known kinesins, but contained a globular domain in the N-terminus and a putative coiled-coil region in the middle. The calmodulin-binding region was mapped to a stretch of 64 amino acid residues in the C-terminus region of the protein. The gene is differentially expressed with the highest expression in apical buds. A homolog of PKCBP from Arabidopsis (AKCBP) showed identical structural organization indicating that kinesin heavy chains that bind to calmodulin are likely to exist in other plants. This paper presents evidence that the motor domain has microtubule stimulated ATPase activity and binds to microtubules in a nucleotide-dependent manner. The kinesin heavy chain-like calmodulin-binding protein is a new member of the kinesin superfamily as none of the known kinesin heavy chains contain a calmodulin-binding domain. The presence of a calmodulin-binding motif and a motor domain in a single polypeptide suggests regulation of kinesin heavy chain driven motor function(s) by calcium and calmodulin.
- Gonzalez M, Cambiazo V, Maccioni RB
- Identification of a new microtubule-interacting protein Mip-90.
- Eur J Cell Biol. 1995; 67: 158-69
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The interaction of different protein systems with microtubules is a critical step in the cellular function of these organelles. The family of microtube-associated proteins (MAPs) together with a set of motor proteins such as kinesin, cytosolic dynein and dynamin are among the most clear examples of microtubule-interacting proteins. In addition, an increasing number of recently discovered proteins have been shown to interact with microtubules, even though they do not remain associated after cycles of assembly and disassembly. By using affinity columns of agarose derivatized with peptides from the C-terminal regulatory domain on tubulin, we found a 90 kDa protein that interacts with tubulin and microtubules. This protein, here designated as Mip-90, was isolated from neuroblastoma N2A and HeLa cells. It was also identified in high-speed supernatants of the neuroblastoma N-115, and non-neuronal cell lines NIH 3T3, Huh-7, HTB-145 and SW-13 vim+. Mip-90 was able to specifically bind to affinity columns of the agarose-bound beta-II(422-434) and beta-II(434-443) tubulin peptides, containing the sequences of MAP binding domains on beta-II-tubulin. Specific antibodies to Mip-90 along with an anti-beta-tubulin antibody used in double immunofluorescence experiments revealed a striking colocalization of this protein with the microtubule network. Nocodazole-treated cells showed significant changes in Mip-90 distribution as correlated to disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton. On the other hand, Mip-90 colocalized with microtubule bundles with a perinuclear distribution in HeLa cells treated with taxol. The binding of Mip-90 to microtubules was confirmed by cosedimentation experiments. This protein also exhibited a strong affinity for a calmodulin-agarose affinity matrix, and a preparation of Mip-90 isolated by this affinity procedure was able to promote in vitro tubulin assembly into microtubules. The capacity of Mip-90 to interact with microtubules and with calmodulin suggested functional similarities to tau proteins. However, Western blot analysis using a polyclonal antibody against this protein revealed no cross-reactivity of Mip-90 with tau components. In addition, the 90 kDa protein is a thermosensitive protein. On the other hand, site-directed antibodies that recognize a repetitive binding domain on tau, MAP-2 and MAP-4 failed to react with Mip-90. The studies suggest that Mip-90, a microtubule-interacting protein incorporates into microtubules in vitro, and may play a role in modulating microtubule assembly and organization in non-neuronal cells, thus contributing to the regulation of the dynamics of the cytoskeletal network.
- Fackenthal JD, Hutchens JA, Turner FR, Raff EC
- Structural analysis of mutations in the Drosophila beta 2-tubulin isoform reveals regions in the beta-tubulin molecular required for general and for tissue-specific microtubule functions.
- Genetics. 1995; 139: 267-86
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We have determined the lesions in a number of mutant alleles of beta Tub85D, the gene that encodes the testis-specific beta 2-tubulin isoform in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations responsible for different classes of functional phenotypes are distributed throughout the beta 2-tubulin molecule. There is a telling correlation between the degree of phylogenetic conservation of the altered residues and the number of different microtubule categories disrupted by the lesions. The majority of lesions occur at positions that are evolutionarily highly conserved in all beta-tubulins; these lesions disrupt general functions common to multiple classes of microtubules. However, a single allele B2t6 contains an amino acid substitution within an internal cluster of variable amino acids that has been identified as an isotype-defining domain in vertebrate beta-tubulins. Correspondingly, B2t6 disrupts only a subset of microtubule functions, resulting in misspecification of the morphology of the doublet microtubules of the sperm tail axoneme. We previously demonstrated that beta 3, a developmentally regulated Drosophila beta-tubulin isoform, confers the same restricted morphological phenotype in a dominant way when it is coexpressed in the testis with wild-type beta 2-tubulin. We show here by complementation analysis that beta 3 and the B2t6 product disrupt a common aspect of microtubule assembly. We therefore conclude that the amino acid sequence of the beta 2-tubulin internal variable region is required for generation of correct axoneme morphology but not for general microtubule functions. As we have previously reported, the beta 2-tubulin carboxy terminal isotype-defining domain is required for suprastructural organization of the axoneme. We demonstrate here that the beta 2 variant lacking the carboxy terminus and the B2t6 variant complement each other for mild-to-moderate meiotic defects but do not complement for proper axonemal morphology. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis drawn from comparisons of vertebrate beta-tubulins that the two isotype-defining domains interact in a three-dimensional structure in wild-type beta-tubulins. We propose that the integrity of this structure in the Drosophila testis beta 2-tubulin isoform is required for proper axoneme assembly but not necessarily for general microtubule functions. On the basis of our observations we present a model for regulation of axoneme microtubule morphology as a function of tubulin assembly kinetics.
- Trave G, Pastore A, Hyvonen M, Saraste M
- The C-terminal domain of alpha-spectrin is structurally related to calmodulin.
- Eur J Biochem. 1995; 227: 35-42
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An alignment of amino acid sequences suggests that the spectrin domain, which contains two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs, is structurally related to calmodulin. It is possible to align approximately 160 residues at the C-terminus of alpha-spectrin with the entire calmodulin sequence. We have expressed this domain in Escherichia coli and purified it. Circular dichroic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show that the protein is folded and mostly helical. The conformation of the protein, as monitored spectroscopically, is sensitive to calcium at 0.1-1.0 mM. Equilibrium dialysis shows that there are two binding sites within this domain, with affinities in the 0.5 mM range. The domain can be split into N-terminal and C-terminal halves which fold independently. Only the N-terminal subdomain binds calcium. These data suggest that the C-terminus of alpha-spectrin has a domain with a calmodulin fold and two calcium-binding sites. Sequence alignments suggest that the related domains in alpha-actinin, and possibly in dystrophin, may share the same calmodulin-like structure. However, only non-muscle alpha-actinins appear to have one or two EF-hand(s) with the calcium-binding consensus sequence, and a strict consensus is not found in the muscle alpha-actinins or dystrophins.
- Kennedy SP, Warren SL, Forget BG, Morrow JS
- Ankyrin binds to the 15th repetitive unit of erythroid and nonerythroid beta-spectrin.
- J Cell Biol. 1991; 115: 267-77
- Display abstract
Ankyrin mediates the attachment of spectrin to transmembrane integral proteins in both erythroid and nonerythroid cells by binding to the beta-subunit of spectrin. Previous studies using enzymatic digestion, 2-nitro-5-thiocyanobenzoic acid cleavage, and rotary shadowing techniques have placed the spectrin-ankyrin binding site in the COOH-terminal third of beta-spectrin, but the precise site is not known. We have used a glutathione S-transferase prokaryotic expression system to prepare recombinant erythroid and nonerythroid beta-spectrin from cDNA encoding approximately the carboxy-terminal half of these proteins. Recombinant spectrin competed on an equimolar basis with 125I-labeled native spectrin for binding to erythrocyte membrane vesicles (IOVs), and also bound ankyrin in vitro as measured by sedimentation velocity experiments. Although full length beta-spectrin could inhibit all spectrin binding to IOVs, recombinant beta-spectrin encompassing the complete ankyrin binding domain but lacking the amino-terminal half of the molecule failed to inhibit about 25% of the binding capacity of the IOVs, suggesting that the ankyrin-independent spectrin membrane binding site must lie in the amino-terminal half of beta-spectrin. A nested set of shortened recombinants was generated by nuclease digestion of beta-spectrin cDNAs from ankyrin binding constructs. These defined the ankyrin binding domain as encompassing the 15th repeat unit in both erythroid and nonerythroid beta-spectrin, amino acid residues 1,768-1,898 in erythroid beta-spectrin. The ankyrin binding repeat unit is atypical in that it lacks the conserved tryptophan at position 45 (1,811) within the repeat and contains a nonhomologous 43 residue segment in the terminal third of the repeat. It also appears that the first 30 residues of this repeat, which are highly conserved between the erythroid and nonerythroid beta-spectrins, are critical for ankyrin binding activity. We hypothesize that ankyrin binds directly to the nonhomologous segment in the 15th repeat unit of both erythroid and nonerythroid beta-spectrin, but that this sequence must be presented in the context of a properly folded spectrin "repeat unit" structure. Future studies will identify which residues within the repeat unit are essential for activity, and which residues determine the specificity of various spectrins for different forms of ankyrin.