Secondary literature sources for CAT
The following references were automatically generated.
- Ono T, Miyazaki T, Ishida Y, Uehata M, Nagata K
- Direct in vitro and in vivo evidence for interaction between Hsp47 protein and collagen triple helix.
- J Biol Chem. 2012; 287: 6810-8
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Hsp47 (heat shock protein 47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is essential for the maturation of various types of procollagens. Previous studies have suggested that Hsp47 may preferentially recognize the triple-helix form of procollagen rather than unfolded procollagen chains in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear because of limitations in the available methods for detecting in vitro and in vivo interactions between Hsp47 and collagen. In this study, we established novel methods for this purpose by adopting a time-resolved FRET technique in vitro and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation technique in vivo. Using these methods, we provide direct evidence that Hsp47 binds to collagen triple helices but not to the monomer form in vitro. We also demonstrate that Hsp47 binds a collagen model peptide in the trimer conformation in vivo. Hsp47 did not bind collagen peptides that had been modified to block their ability to form triple helices in vivo. These results conclusively indicate that Hsp47 recognizes the triple-helix form of procollagen in vitro and in vivo.
- Xu Y, Keene DR, Bujnicki JM, Hook M, Lukomski S
- Streptococcal Scl1 and Scl2 proteins form collagen-like triple helices.
- J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 27312-8
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The collagens are a family of animal proteins containing segments of repeated Gly-Xaa-Yaa (GXY) motifs that form a characteristic triple-helical structure. Genes encoding proteins with repeated GXY motifs have also been reported in bacteria and phages; however, it is unclear whether these prokaryotic proteins can form a collagen-like triple-helical structure. Here we used two recently identified streptococcal proteins, Scl1 and Scl2, containing extended GXY sequence repeats as model proteins. First we observed that prior to heat denaturation recombinant Scl proteins migrated as homotrimers in gel electrophoresis with and without SDS. We next showed that the collagen-like domain of Scl is resistant to proteolysis by trypsin. We further showed that circular dichroism spectra of the Scl proteins contained features characteristic of collagen triple helices, including a positive maximum of ellipticity at 220 nm. Furthermore the triple helices of Scl1 and Scl2 showed a temperature-dependent unfolding with melting temperatures of 36.4 and 37.6 degrees C, respectively, which resembles those seen for collagens. We finally demonstrated by electron microscopy that the Scl proteins are organized into "lollipop-like" structures, similar to those seen in human proteins with collagenous domains. This implies that the repeated GXY tripeptide motif is a structural indicator of collagen-like triple helices in proteins from such phylogenetically distant sources as bacteria and humans.
- Hakansson K, Reid KB
- Collectin structure: a review.
- Protein Sci. 2000; 9: 1607-17
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Collectins are animal calcium dependent lectins that target the carbohydrate structures on invading pathogens, resulting in the agglutination and enhanced clearance of the microorganism. These proteins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil, and the lectin domain. Only primary structure data are available for the N-terminal region, while the most important features of the collagen-like region can be derived from its homology with collagen. The structures of the alpha-helical coiled-coil and the lectin domain are known from crystallographic studies of mannan binding protein (MBP) and lung surfactant protein D (SP-D). Carbohydrate binding has been structurally characterized in several complexes between MBP and carbohydrate; all indicate that the major interaction between carbohydrate and collectin is the binding of two adjacent carbohydrate hydroxyl group to a collectin calcium ion. In addition, these hydroxyl groups hydrogen bond to some of the calcium amino acid ligands. While each collectin trimer contains three such carbohydrate binding sites, deviation from the overall threefold symmetry has been demonstrated for SP-D, which may influence its binding properties. The protein surface between the three binding sites is positively charged in both MBP and SP-D.