Secondary literature sources for CDC37_N
The following references were automatically generated.
- Marechal A, Tanguay PL, Callejo M, Guerin R, Boileau G, Rokeach LA
- Cell viability and secretion of active proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe do not require the chaperone function of calnexin.
- Biochem J. 2004; 380: 441-8
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Folding of newly synthesized proteins within the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is a rate-limiting step in protein secretion. Thus ER molecular chaperones and foldases have a major impact in determining the rate and yield of these crucial cellular processes. Calnexin is a key ER chaperone implicated in the folding, retention and targeting for degradation of proteins that go through the secretory pathway. Calnexin molecules contain a highly conserved central domain (hcd) that has been proposed to be involved in the interaction with folding substrates and other chaperones. To gain a better understanding of the roles played by calnexin in the secretory pathway, we examined the efficiency of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) strains expressing calnexin mutants to secrete different model proteins. Remarkably, calnexin hcd-deletion mutants, although devoid of detectable chaperone activity in vitro, confer viability and cause a considerable increase in the secretion of heterologous cellulase. Surprisingly the quality-control efficiency, measured as the activity/amount ratio of secreted model protein, was not severely reduced in these calnexin hcd-deletion mutant strains. Our results indicate that the essential function of calnexin does not reside in its role in the folding or in the retention of misfolded proteins. These observations suggest the existence of a highly stringent quality control mechanism in the ER of S. pombe that might reduce the secretion efficiency of endogenous proteins.
- Pratt WB
- The hsp90-based chaperone system: involvement in signal transduction from a variety of hormone and growth factor receptors.
- Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1998; 217: 420-34
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A variety of transcription factors and protein kinases involved in signal transduction are recovered from cells in heterocomplexes containing the abundant protein chaperone hsp90. Genetic studies in yeast have demonstrated that binding of steroid receptors, the dioxin receptor, and some protein kinases to hsp90 is critical for their signal transducing function in vivo. These heterocomplexes are formed by a multiprotein chaperone machinery consisting of at least four ubiquitous proteins--hsp90, hsp70, p60 and p23. Four high-molecular-weight immunophilins have been discovered as components of steroid receptor or other transcription factor complexes with hsp90. The immunophilins, protein chaperones with prolyl isomerase activity, bind the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 or CyP-40. These immunophilins all bind via tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains to a single TPR binding site on each hsp90 dimer, and multiple heterocomplexes exist for each protein chaperoned by hsp90 according to the immunophilin that is bound to this TPR binding site at any time. Three components of the MAP kinase signalling system (Src, Raf, and Mek) exist in complexes with hsp90 and a 50-kDa protein that is the mammalian homolog of the yeast cell cycle control protein cdc37. The p50cdc37 binds to hsp90 at a site that is close to but different from the TPR binding site of the immunophilins, and like the immunophilins, p50cdc37 is thought to be involved in targeting and trafficking of the protein kinases. The recent introduction of the benzoquinone antibiotic geldanamycin has facilitated the identification of proteins that are chaperoned by the hsp90-based system. Geldanamycin binds to members of the hsp90 protein family, blocking assembly of hsp90 heterocomplexes and destabilizing preformed heterocomplexes. In the presence of geldanamycin, the function of hsp90-chaperoned proteins is disrupted, and the proteins undergo rapid degradation by an ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal mechanism. It is becoming clear that hsp90 chaperoning is not only essential to a variety of signal transduction pathways, but is critical for proper folding, stabilization, and trafficking of an expanding list of proteins.