Secondary literature sources for CG-1
The following references were automatically generated.
- Kasukabe T, Okabe-Kado J, Honma Y
- TRA1, a novel mRNA highly expressed in leukemogenic mouse monocytic sublines but not in nonleukemogenic sublines.
- Blood. 1997; 89: 2975-85
- Display abstract
Mouse monocytic Mm-A, Mm-P, Mm-S1, and Mm-S2 cells are sublines of mouse monocytic and immortalized Mm-1 cells derived from spontaneously differentiated, mouse myeloblastic M1 cells. Although these subline cells retain their monocytic characteristics in vitro, Mm-A and Mm-P cells are highly leukemogenic to syngeneic SL mice and athymic nude mice, whereas Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells are not or are only slightly leukemogenic. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of these levels of leukemogenicity, we investigated putative leukemogenesis-associated genes or oncogenes involved in the maintenance of growth, especially in vivo, by means of differential mRNA display. We isolated a fragment clone (15T01) from Mm-P cells. The mRNA probed with 15T01 was expressed at high levels in leukemogenic Mm-P and Mm-A cells but not in nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 and Mm-S2 cells. The gene corresponding to 15T01, named TRA1, was isolated from an Mm-P cDNA library. The longest open reading frame of the TRA1 clone predicts a peptide containing 204 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 23,049 D. The predicted TRA1 protein is cysteine-rich and contains multiple cysteine doublets. A putative normal counterpart gene, named NOR1, was also isolated from a normal mouse kidney cDNA library and sequenced. NOR1 cDNA predicts a peptide containing 234 amino acids. The sequence of 201 amino acids from the C-terminal NOR1 was completely identical to that of TRA1, whereas the remaining N-terminal amino acids (33 amino acids) were longer than that (3 amino acids) of TRA1 and the N-terminus of NOR1 protein contained proline-rich sequence. A similarity search against current nucleotide and protein sequence databases indicated that the NOR1/TRA1 gene(s) is conserved in a wide range of eukaryotes, because apparently homologous genes were identified in Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. Northern blotting using TRA1-specific and NOR1-specific probes indicated that TRA1 mRNA is exclusively expressed in leukemogenic but not in nonleukemogenic Mm sublines and normal tissues and also indicated that NOR1 mRNA is expressed in normal tissues, especially in kidney, lung, liver, and bone marrow cells but not in any Mm sublines. After leukemogenic Mm-P cells were induced to differentiate into normal macrophages by sodium butyrate, the normal counterpart, NOR1, was expressed, whereas the TRA1 level decreased. Furthermore, transfection of TRA1 converted nonleukemogenic Mm-S1 cells into leukemogenic cells. These results indicate that the TRA1 gene is associated at least in part with the leukemogenesis of monocytic Mm sublines.
- Reddy AS, Narasimhulu SB, Safadi F, Golovkin M
- A plant kinesin heavy chain-like protein is a calmodulin-binding protein.
- Plant J. 1996; 10: 9-21
- Display abstract
Calmodulin, a calcium modulated protein, regulates the activity of several proteins that control cellular functions. A cDNA encoding a unique calmodulin-binding protein, PKCBP, was isolated from a potato expression library using protein-protein interaction based screening. The cDNA encoded protein bound to biotinylated calmodulin and 35S-labeled calmodulin in the presence of calcium and failed to bind in the presence of EGTA, a calcium chelator. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PKCBP has a domain of about 340 amino acids in the C-terminus that showed significant sequence similarity with the kinesin heavy chain motor domain and contained conserved ATP- and microtubule-binding sites present in the motor domain of all known kinesin heavy chains. Outside the motor domain, the PKCBP showed no sequence similarity with any of the known kinesins, but contained a globular domain in the N-terminus and a putative coiled-coil region in the middle. The calmodulin-binding region was mapped to a stretch of 64 amino acid residues in the C-terminus region of the protein. The gene is differentially expressed with the highest expression in apical buds. A homolog of PKCBP from Arabidopsis (AKCBP) showed identical structural organization indicating that kinesin heavy chains that bind to calmodulin are likely to exist in other plants. This paper presents evidence that the motor domain has microtubule stimulated ATPase activity and binds to microtubules in a nucleotide-dependent manner. The kinesin heavy chain-like calmodulin-binding protein is a new member of the kinesin superfamily as none of the known kinesin heavy chains contain a calmodulin-binding domain. The presence of a calmodulin-binding motif and a motor domain in a single polypeptide suggests regulation of kinesin heavy chain driven motor function(s) by calcium and calmodulin.
- Daniel-Vedele F, Caboche M
- A tobacco cDNA clone encoding a GATA-1 zinc finger protein homologous to regulators of nitrogen metabolism in fungi.
- Mol Gen Genet. 1993; 240: 365-73
- Display abstract
In higher plants, the expression of the nitrate assimilation pathway is highly regulated. Although the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation are currently being elucidated, very little is known about the trans-acting factors that allow expression of the nitrate and nitrite reductase genes which code for the first enzymes in the pathway. In the fungus Neurospora crassa, nit-2, the major nitrogen regulatory gene, activates the expression of unlinked structural genes that specify nitrogen-catabolic enzymes during conditions of nitrogen limitation. The nit-2 gene encodes a regulatory protein containing a single zinc finger motif defined by the C-X2-C-X17-C-X2-C sequence. This DNA-binding domain recognizes the promoter region of N. crassa nitrogen-related genes and fragments derived from the tomato nia gene promoter. The observed specificity of the binding suggests the existence of a NIT2-like homolog in higher plants. PCR and cross-hybridization techniques were used to isolate, respectively, a partial cDNA from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and a full-length cDNA from Nicotiana tabacum. These clones encode a NIT2-like protein (named NTL1 for nit-2-like), characterized by a single zinc finger domain, defined by the C-X2-C-X18-C-X2-C amino acids, and associated with a basic region. The amino acid sequence of NTL1 is 60% homologous to the NIT2 sequence in the zinc finger domain. The Ntl1 gene is present as a unique copy in the diploid N. plumbaginifolia species. The characteristics of Ntl1 gene expression are compatible with those of a regulator of the nitrate assimilation pathway, namely weak nitrate inducibility and regulation by light.