Secondary literature sources for CHAD
The following references were automatically generated.
- Biswas KH, Badireddy S, Rajendran A, Anand GS, Visweswariah SS
- Cyclic nucleotide binding and structural changes in the isolated GAF domain of Anabaena adenylyl cyclase, CyaB2.
- PeerJ. 2015; 3: 882-882
- Display abstract
GAF domains are a large family of regulatory domains, and a subset are found associated with enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) metabolism such as adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. CyaB2, an adenylyl cyclase from Anabaena, contains two GAF domains in tandem at the N-terminus and an adenylyl cyclase domain at the C-terminus. Cyclic AMP, but not cGMP, binding to the GAF domains of CyaB2 increases the activity of the cyclase domain leading to enhanced synthesis of cAMP. Here we show that the isolated GAFb domain of CyaB2 can bind both cAMP and cGMP, and enhanced specificity for cAMP is observed only when both the GAFa and the GAFb domains are present in tandem (GAFab domain). In silico docking and mutational analysis identified distinct residues important for interaction with either cAMP or cGMP in the GAFb domain. Structural changes associated with ligand binding to the GAF domains could not be detected by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments. However, amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS) experiments provided insights into the structural basis for cAMP-induced allosteric regulation of the GAF domains, and differences in the changes induced by cAMP and cGMP binding to the GAF domain. Thus, our findings could allow the development of molecules that modulate the allosteric regulation by GAF domains present in pharmacologically relevant proteins.
- Tirapelle EF et al.
- Identification of proteins associated with polyhydroxybutyrate granules from Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1--old partners, new players.
- PLoS One. 2013; 8: 75066-75066
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Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a diazotrophic ss-Proteobacterium found associated with important agricultural crops. This bacterium produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), an aliphatic polyester, as a carbon storage and/or source of reducing equivalents. The PHB polymer is stored as intracellular insoluble granules coated mainly with proteins, some of which are directly involved in PHB synthesis, degradation and granule biogenesis. In this work, we have extracted the PHB granules from H. seropedicae and identified their associated-proteins by mass spectrometry. This analysis allowed us to identify the main phasin (PhaP1) coating the PHB granule as well as the PHB synthase (PhbC1) responsible for its synthesis. A phbC1 mutant is impaired in PHB synthesis, confirming its role in H. seropedicae. On the other hand, a phaP1 mutant produces PHB granules but coated mainly with the secondary phasin (PhaP2). Furthermore, some novel proteins not previously described to be involved with PHB metabolism were also identified, bringing new possibilities to PHB function in H. seropedicae.
- Marden JN, Dong Q, Roychowdhury S, Berleman JE, Bauer CE
- Cyclic GMP controls Rhodospirillum centenum cyst development.
- Mol Microbiol. 2011; 79: 600-15
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Adenylyl cyclases are widely distributed across all kingdoms whereas guanylyl cyclases are generally thought to be restricted to eukaryotes. Here we report that the alpha-proteobacterium Rhodospirillum centenum secretes cGMP when developing cysts and that a guanylyl cyclase deletion strain fails to synthesize cGMP and is defective in cyst formation. The R. centenum cyclase was purified and shown to effectively synthesize cGMP from GTP in vitro, demonstrating that it is a functional guanylyl cyclase. A homologue of the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is linked to the guanylyl cyclase and when deleted is deficient in cyst development. Isothermal calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) analyses demonstrate that the recombinant CRP homologue preferentially binds to, and is stabilized by cGMP, but not cAMP. This study thus provides evidence that cGMP has a crucial role in regulating prokaryotic development. The involvement of cGMP in regulating bacterial development has broader implications as several plant-interacting bacteria contain a similar cyclase coupled by the observation that Azospirillum brasilense also synthesizes cGMP when inducing cysts.
- Makarova KS, Wolf YI, van der Oost J, Koonin EV
- Prokaryotic homologs of Argonaute proteins are predicted to function as key components of a novel system of defense against mobile genetic elements.
- Biol Direct. 2009; 4: 29-29
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BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, RNA interference (RNAi) is a major mechanism of defense against viruses and transposable elements as well of regulating translation of endogenous mRNAs. The RNAi systems recognize the target RNA molecules via small guide RNAs that are completely or partially complementary to a region of the target. Key components of the RNAi systems are proteins of the Argonaute-PIWI family some of which function as slicers, the nucleases that cleave the target RNA that is base-paired to a guide RNA. Numerous prokaryotes possess the CRISPR-associated system (CASS) of defense against phages and plasmids that is, in part, mechanistically analogous but not homologous to eukaryotic RNAi systems. Many prokaryotes also encode homologs of Argonaute-PIWI proteins but their functions remain unknown. RESULTS: We present a detailed analysis of Argonaute-PIWI protein sequences and the genomic neighborhoods of the respective genes in prokaryotes. Whereas eukaryotic Ago/PIWI proteins always contain PAZ (oligonucleotide binding) and PIWI (active or inactivated nuclease) domains, the prokaryotic Argonaute homologs (pAgos) fall into two major groups in which the PAZ domain is either present or absent. The monophyly of each group is supported by a phylogenetic analysis of the conserved PIWI-domains. Almost all pAgos that lack a PAZ domain appear to be inactivated, and the respective genes are associated with a variety of predicted nucleases in putative operons. An additional, uncharacterized domain that is fused to various nucleases appears to be a unique signature of operons encoding the short (lacking PAZ) pAgo form. By contrast, almost all PAZ-domain containing pAgos are predicted to be active nucleases. Some proteins of this group (e.g., that from Aquifex aeolicus) have been experimentally shown to possess nuclease activity, and are not typically associated with genes for other (putative) nucleases. Given these observations, the apparent extensive horizontal transfer of pAgo genes, and their common, statistically significant over-representation in genomic neighborhoods enriched in genes encoding proteins involved in the defense against phages and/or plasmids, we hypothesize that pAgos are key components of a novel class of defense systems. The PAZ-domain containing pAgos are predicted to directly destroy virus or plasmid nucleic acids via their nuclease activity, whereas the apparently inactivated, PAZ-lacking pAgos could be structural subunits of protein complexes that contain, as active moieties, the putative nucleases that we predict to be co-expressed with these pAgos. All these nucleases are predicted to be DNA endonucleases, so it seems most probable that the putative novel phage/plasmid-defense system targets phage DNA rather than mRNAs. Given that in eukaryotic RNAi systems, the PAZ domain binds a guide RNA and positions it on the complementary region of the target, we further speculate that pAgos function on a similar principle (the guide being either DNA or RNA), and that the uncharacterized domain found in putative operons with the short forms of pAgos is a functional substitute for the PAZ domain. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis that pAgos are key components of a novel prokaryotic immune system that employs guide RNA or DNA molecules to degrade nucleic acids of invading mobile elements implies a functional analogy with the prokaryotic CASS and a direct evolutionary connection with eukaryotic RNAi. The predictions of the hypothesis including both the activities of pAgos and those of the associated endonucleases are readily amenable to experimental tests.
- Murphy JN, Durbin KJ, Saltikov CW
- Functional roles of arcA, etrA, cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein, and cya in the arsenate respiration pathway in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.
- J Bacteriol. 2009; 191: 1035-43
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Microbial arsenate respiration can enhance arsenic release from arsenic-bearing minerals--a process that can cause arsenic contamination of water. In Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, the arsenate respiration genes (arrAB) are induced under anaerobic conditions with arsenate and arsenite. Here we report how genes that encode anaerobic regulator (arcA and etrA [fnr homolog]) and carbon catabolite repression (crp and cya) proteins affect arsenate respiration in ANA-3. Transcription of arcA, etrA, and crp in ANA-3 was similar in cells grown on arsenate and cells grown under aerobic conditions. ANA-3 strains lacking arcA and etrA showed minor to moderate growth defects, respectively, with arsenate. However, crp was essential for growth on arsenate. In contrast to the wild-type strain, arrA was not induced in the crp mutant in cultures shifted from aerobic to anaerobic conditions containing arsenate. This indicated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cyclic AMP receptor (CRP) activates arr operon transcription. Computation analysis for genome-wide CRP binding motifs identified a putative binding motif within the arr promoter region. This was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with cAMP-CRP and several DNA probes. Lastly, four putative adenylate cyclase (cya) genes were identified in the genome. One particular cya-like gene was differentially expressed under aerobic versus arsenate respiration conditions. Moreover, a double mutant lacking two of the cya-like genes could not grow with arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor; exogenous cAMP could complement growth of the double cya mutant. It is concluded that the components of the carbon catabolite repression system are essential to regulating arsenate respiratory reduction in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3.
- Winger JA, Derbyshire ER, Lamers MH, Marletta MA, Kuriyan J
- The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a eukaryotic guanylate cyclase.
- BMC Struct Biol. 2008; 8: 42-42
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BACKGROUND: Soluble guanylate cyclases generate cyclic GMP when bound to nitric oxide, thereby linking nitric oxide levels to the control of processes such as vascular homeostasis and neurotransmission. The guanylate cyclase catalytic module, for which no structure has been determined at present, is a class III nucleotide cyclase domain that is also found in mammalian membrane-bound guanylate and adenylate cyclases. RESULTS: We have determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a soluble guanylate cyclase from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at 2.55 A resolution, and show that it is a dimeric molecule. CONCLUSION: Comparison of the structure of the guanylate cyclase domain with the known structures of adenylate cyclases confirms the close similarity in architecture between these two enzymes, as expected from their sequence similarity. The comparison also suggests that the crystallized guanylate cyclase is in an inactive conformation, and the structure provides indications as to how activation might occur. We demonstrate that the two active sites in the dimer exhibit positive cooperativity, with a Hill coefficient of approximately 1.5. Positive cooperativity has also been observed in the homodimeric mammalian membrane-bound guanylate cyclases. The structure described here provides a reliable model for functional analysis of mammalian guanylate cyclases, which are closely related in sequence.
- Song J, Bettendorff L, Tonelli M, Markley JL
- Structural basis for the catalytic mechanism of mammalian 25-kDa thiamine triphosphatase.
- J Biol Chem. 2008; 283: 10939-48
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Mammalian soluble thiamine triphosphatase (ThTPase) is a 25-kDa cytosolic enzyme that specifically catalyzes the conversion of thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) to thiamine diphosphate and has an absolute requirement for divalent cations. We have investigated the kinetic properties of recombinant mouse thiamine triphosphatase (mThTPase) and determined its solution structure by NMR spectroscopy. Residues responsible for binding Mg(2+) and ThTP were determined from NMR titration experiments. The binding of Mg(2+) induced only a minor local conformational change, whereas ThTP binding was found to cause a more global conformational change. We derived a structural model for the mThTPase.ThTP.Mg(2+) ternary complex and concluded from this that whereas free mThTPase has an open cleft fold, the enzyme in the ternary complex adopts a tunnel fold. Our results provide a functional rationale for a number of conserved residues and suggest an essential role for Mg(2+) in catalysis. We propose a mechanism underlying the high substrate specificity of mThTPase and discuss the possible role of water molecules in enzymatic catalysis.
- Lu J et al.
- CSCDB: the cAMP and cGMP signaling components database.
- Genomics. 2008; 92: 60-4
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Adenylate cyclases, guanylate cyclases, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, and cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins constitute the core of cAMP and cGMP signaling components. Using a combination of BLAST and profile search methods, we found that cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins exhibited diverse domain architectures. In addition to the domain architectures involved in the characterized functional groups, a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain was also fused to various domains involved in pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase, acetyltransferase, thioredoxin reductase, glutaminase, rhodanese, ferredoxin, and diguanylate cyclase, implying the versatile functions of cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins. We constructed the CSCDB database to accumulate the components of cAMP and cGMP signaling pathways in the complete genomes. User-friendly interfaces were created for easier browsing, searching, and downloading the data. Besides harboring the sequence itself, each entry provided detailed annotation information, such as sequence features, chromosomal localization, functional domains, transmembrane region, and sequence similarity against several major databases. Currently, CSCDB contains 4234 entries covering 466 organisms, including 35 eukaryotes, 382 bacteria, and 29 archaea. CSCDB can be freely accessible on the web at http://cscdb.com.cn.
- Jiang C, Kim SY, Suh DY
- Divergent evolution of the thiolase superfamily and chalcone synthase family.
- Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008; 49: 691-701
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Enzymes of the thiolase superfamily catalyze the formation of carbon-carbon bond via the Claisen condensation reaction. Thiolases catalyze the reversible non-decarboxylative condensation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA, and possess a conserved Cys-His catalytic diad. Elongation enzymes (beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase (KAS) I and KAS II and the condensing domain of polyketide synthase) have invariant Cys and two His residues (CHH triad), while a Cys-His-Asn (CHN) triad is found in initiation enzymes (KAS III, 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) and the chalcone synthase (CHS) family). These enzymes all catalyze decarboxylative condensation reactions. 3-Hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGS) also contains the CHN triad, although it catalyzes a non-decarboxylative condensation. That the enzymes of the thiolase superfamily share overall similarity in protein structure and function suggested a common evolutionary origin. All thiolases were found to have, in addition to the Cys-His diad, either Asn or His (thus C(N/H)H) at a position corresponding to the His in the CHH and CHN triads. In our phylogenetic analyses, the thiolase superfamily was divided into four main clusters according to active site architecture. During the functional divergence of the superfamily, the active architecture was suggested to evolve from the C(H)H in archaeal thiolases to the C(N/H)H in non-archaeal thiolases, and subsequently to the CHH in the elongation enzymes and the CHN in the initiation enzymes. Based on these observations and available biochemical and structural evidences, a plausible evolutionary history for the thiolase superfamily is proposed that includes the emergence of decarboxylative condensing enzymes accompanied by a recruitment of the His in the CHH and CHN triads for a catalytic role during decarboxylative condensation. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the plant CHS family showed separate clustering of CHS and non-CHS members of the family with a few exceptions, suggesting repeated gene birth-and-death and re-invention of non-CHS functions throughout the evolution of angiosperms. Based on these observations, predictions on the enzymatic functions are made for several members of the CHS family whose functions are yet to be characterized. Further, a moss CHS-like enzyme that is functionally similar to a cyanobacterial enzyme was identified as the most recent common ancestor to the plant CHS family.
- Burroughs AM, Balaji S, Iyer LM, Aravind L
- Small but versatile: the extraordinary functional and structural diversity of the beta-grasp fold.
- Biol Direct. 2007; 2: 18-18
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BACKGROUND: The beta-grasp fold (beta-GF), prototyped by ubiquitin (UB), has been recruited for a strikingly diverse range of biochemical functions. These functions include providing a scaffold for different enzymatic active sites (e.g. NUDIX phosphohydrolases) and iron-sulfur clusters, RNA-soluble-ligand and co-factor-binding, sulfur transfer, adaptor functions in signaling, assembly of macromolecular complexes and post-translational protein modification. To understand the basis for the functional versatility of this small fold we undertook a comprehensive sequence-structure analysis of the fold and developed a natural classification for its members. RESULTS: As a result we were able to define the core distinguishing features of the fold and numerous elaborations, including several previously unrecognized variants. Systematic analysis of all known interactions of the fold showed that its manifold functional abilities arise primarily from the prominent beta-sheet, which provides an exposed surface for diverse interactions or additionally, by forming open barrel-like structures. We show that in the beta-GF both enzymatic activities and the binding of diverse co-factors (e.g. molybdopterin) have independently evolved on at least three occasions each, and iron-sulfur-cluster-binding on at least two independent occasions. Our analysis identified multiple previously unknown large monophyletic assemblages within the beta-GF, including one which unifies versions found in the fasciclin-1 superfamily, the ribosomal protein L25, the phosphoribosyl AMP cyclohydrolase (HisI) and glutamine synthetase. We also uncovered several new groups of beta-GF domains including a domain found in bacterial flagellar and fimbrial assembly components, and 5 new UB-like domains in the eukaryotes. CONCLUSION: Evolutionary reconstruction indicates that the beta-GF had differentiated into at least 7 distinct lineages by the time of the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms, encompassing much of the structural diversity observed in extant versions of the fold. The earliest beta-GF members were probably involved in RNA metabolism and subsequently radiated into various functional niches. Most of the structural diversification occurred in the prokaryotes, whereas the eukaryotic phase was mainly marked by a specific expansion of the ubiquitin-like beta-GF members. The eukaryotic UB superfamily diversified into at least 67 distinct families, of which at least 19-20 families were already present in the eukaryotic common ancestor, including several protein and one lipid conjugated forms. Another key aspect of the eukaryotic phase of evolution of the beta-GF was the dramatic increase in domain architectural complexity of proteins related to the expansion of UB-like domains in numerous adaptor roles.
- Barabote RD et al.
- Extra domains in secondary transport carriers and channel proteins.
- Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006; 1758: 1557-79
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"Extra" domains in members of the families of secondary transport carrier and channel proteins provide secondary functions that expand, amplify or restrict the functional nature of these proteins. Domains in secondary carriers include TrkA and SPX domains in DASS family members, DedA domains in TRAP-T family members (both of the IT superfamily), Kazal-2 and PDZ domains in OAT family members (of the MF superfamily), USP, IIA(Fru) and TrkA domains in ABT family members (of the APC superfamily), ricin domains in OST family members, and TrkA domains in AAE family members. Some transporters contain highly hydrophilic domains consisting of multiple repeat units that can also be found in proteins of dissimilar function. Similarly, transmembrane alpha-helical channel-forming proteins contain unique, conserved, hydrophilic domains, most of which are not found in carriers. In some cases the functions of these domains are known. They may be ligand binding domains, phosphorylation domains, signal transduction domains, protein/protein interaction domains or complex carbohydrate-binding domains. These domains mediate regulation, subunit interactions, or subcellular targeting. Phylogenetic analyses show that while some of these domains are restricted to closely related proteins derived from specific organismal types, others are nearly ubiquitous within a particular family of transporters and occur in a tremendous diversity of organisms. The former probably became associated with the transporters late in the evolutionary process; the latter probably became associated with the carriers much earlier. These domains can be located at either end of the transporter or in a central region, depending on the domain and transporter family. These studies provide useful information about the evolution of extra domains in channels and secondary carriers and provide novel clues concerning function.
- Ketkar AD, Shenoy AR, Ramagopal UA, Visweswariah SS, Suguna K
- A structural basis for the role of nucleotide specifying residues in regulating the oligomerization of the Rv1625c adenylyl cyclase from M. tuberculosis.
- J Mol Biol. 2006; 356: 904-16
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The Rv1625c Class III adenylyl cyclase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a homodimeric enzyme with two catalytic centers at the dimer interface, and shows sequence similarity with the mammalian adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases. Mutation of the substrate-specifying residues in the catalytic domain of Rv1625c, either independently or together, to those present in guanylyl cyclases not only failed to confer guanylyl cyclase activity to the protein, but also severely abrogated the adenylyl cyclase activity of the enzyme. Biochemical analysis revealed alterations in the behavior of the mutants on ion-exchange chromatography, indicating differences in the surface-exposed charge upon mutation of substrate-specifying residues. The mutant proteins showed alterations in oligomeric status as compared to the wild-type enzyme, and differing abilities to heterodimerize with the wild-type protein. The crystal structure of a mutant has been solved to a resolution of 2.7A. On the basis of the structure, and additional biochemical studies, we provide possible reasons for the altered properties of the mutant proteins, as well as highlight unique structural features of the Rv1625c adenylyl cyclase.
- Ledwidge R et al.
- NmerA, the metal binding domain of mercuric ion reductase, removes Hg2+ from proteins, delivers it to the catalytic core, and protects cells under glutathione-depleted conditions.
- Biochemistry. 2005; 44: 11402-16
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The ligand binding and catalytic properties of heavy metal ions have led to the evolution of metal ion-specific pathways for control of their intracellular trafficking and/or elimination. Small MW proteins/domains containing a GMTCXXC metal binding motif in a betaalphabetabetaalphabeta fold are common among proteins controlling the mobility of soft metal ions such as Cu(1+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+), and the functions of several have been established. In bacterial mercuric ion reductases (MerA), which catalyze reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) as a means of detoxification, one or two repeats of sequences with this fold are highly conserved as N-terminal domains (NmerA) of uncertain function. To simplify functional analysis of NmerA, we cloned and expressed the domain and catalytic core of Tn501 MerA as separate proteins. In this paper, we show Tn501 NmerA to be a stable, soluble protein that binds 1 Hg(2+)/domain and delivers it to the catalytic core at kinetically competent rates. Comparison of steady-state data for full-length versus catalytic core MerA using Hg(glutathione)(2) or Hg(thioredoxin) as substrate demonstrates that the NmerA domain does participate in acquisition and delivery of Hg(2+) to the catalytic core during the reduction catalyzed by full-length MerA, particularly when Hg(2+) is bound to a protein. Finally, comparison of growth curves for glutathione-depleted Escherichia coli expressing either catalytic core, full-length, or a combination of core plus NmerA shows an increased protection of cells against Hg(2+) in the media when NmerA is present, providing the first evidence of a functional role for this highly conserved domain.
- Castro LI, Hermsen C, Schultz JE, Linder JU
- Adenylyl cyclase Rv0386 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv uses a novel mode for substrate selection.
- FEBS J. 2005; 272: 3085-92
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Class III adenylyl cyclases usually possess six highly conserved catalytic residues. Deviations in these canonical amino acids are observed in several putative adenylyl cyclase genes as apparent in several bacterial genomes. This suggests that a variety of catalytic mechanisms may actually exist. The gene Rv0386 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis codes for an adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain fused to an AAA-ATPase and a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain. In Rv0386, the standard substrate, adenine-defining lysine-aspartate couple is replaced by glutamine-asparagine. The recombinant adenylyl cyclase domain was active with a V(max) of 8 nmol cAMP.mg(-1).min(-1). Unusual for adenylyl cyclases, Rv0386 displayed 20% guanylyl cyclase side-activity with GTP as a substrate. Mutation of the glutamine-asparagine pair either to alanine residues or to the canonical lysine-aspartate consensus abolished activity. This argues for a novel mechanism of substrate selection which depends on two non-canonical residues. Data from individual and coordinated point mutations suggest a model for purine definition based on an amide switch related to that previously identified in cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases.
- Shenoy AR, Sivakumar K, Krupa A, Srinivasan N, Visweswariah SS
- A survey of nucleotide cyclases in actinobacteria: unique domain organization and expansion of the class III cyclase family in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Comp Funct Genomics. 2004; 5: 17-38
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Cyclic nucleotides are well-known second messengers involved in the regulation of important metabolic pathways or virulence factors. There are six different classes of nucleotide cyclases that can accomplish the task of generating cAMP, and four of these are restricted to the prokaryotes. The role of cAMP has been implicated in the virulence and regulation of secondary metabolites in the phylum Actinobacteria, which contains important pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, M. bovis and Corynebacterium, and industrial organisms from the genus Streptomyces. We have analysed the actinobacterial genome sequences found in current databases for the presence of different classes of nucleotide cyclases, and find that only class III cyclases are present in these organisms. Importantly, prominent members such as M. tuberculosis and M. leprae have 17 and 4 class III cyclases, respectively, encoded in their genomes, some of which display interesting domain fusions seen for the first time. In addition, a pseudogene corresponding to a cyclase from M. avium has been identified as the only cyclase pseudogene in M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. The Corynebacterium and Streptomyces genomes encode only a single adenylyl cyclase each, both of which have corresponding orthologues in M. tuberculosis. A clustering of the cyclase domains in Actinobacteria reveals the presence of typical eukaryote-like, fungi-like and other bacteria-like class III cyclase sequences within this phylum, suggesting that these proteins may have significant roles to play in this important group of organisms.
- Linder JU, Hammer A, Schultz JE
- The effect of HAMP domains on class IIIb adenylyl cyclases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Eur J Biochem. 2004; 271: 2446-51
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The genes Rv1318c, Rv1319c, Rv1320c and Rv3645 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are predicted to code for four out of 15 adenylyl cyclases in this pathogen. The proteins consist of a membrane anchor, a HAMP region and a class IIIb adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain. Expression and purification of the isolated catalytic domains yielded adenylyl cyclase activity for all four recombinant proteins. Expression of the HAMP region fused to the catalytic domain increased activity in Rv3645 21-fold and slightly reduced activity in Rv1319c by 70%, demonstrating isoform-specific effects of the HAMP domains. Point mutations were generated to remove predicted hydrophobic protein surfaces in the HAMP domains. The mutations further stimulated activity in Rv3645 eight-fold, whereas the effect on Rv1319c was marginal. Thus HAMP domains can act directly as modulators of adenylyl cyclase activity. The modulatory properties of the HAMP domains were confirmed by swapping them between Rv1319c and Rv3645. The data indicate that in the mycobacterial adenylyl cyclases the HAMP domains do not display a uniform regulatory input but instead each form a distinct signaling unit with its adjoining catalytic domain.
- Leipe DD, Koonin EV, Aravind L
- STAND, a class of P-loop NTPases including animal and plant regulators of programmed cell death: multiple, complex domain architectures, unusual phyletic patterns, and evolution by horizontal gene transfer.
- J Mol Biol. 2004; 343: 1-28
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Using sequence profile analysis and sequence-based structure predictions, we define a previously unrecognized, widespread class of P-loop NTPases. The signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) class includes the AP-ATPases (animal apoptosis regulators CED4/Apaf-1, plant disease resistance proteins, and bacterial AfsR-like transcription regulators) and NACHT NTPases (e.g. NAIP, TLP1, Het-E-1) that have been studied extensively in the context of apoptosis, pathogen response in animals and plants, and transcriptional regulation in bacteria. We show that, in addition to these well-characterized protein families, the STAND class includes several other groups of (predicted) NTPase domains from diverse signaling and transcription regulatory proteins from bacteria and eukaryotes, and three Archaea-specific families. We identified the STAND domain in several biologically well-characterized proteins that have not been suspected to have NTPase activity, including soluble adenylyl cyclases, nephrocystin 3 (implicated in polycystic kidney disease), and Rolling pebble (a regulator of muscle development); these findings are expected to facilitate elucidation of the functions of these proteins. The STAND class belongs to the additional strand, catalytic E division of P-loop NTPases together with the AAA+ ATPases, RecA/helicase-related ATPases, ABC-ATPases, and VirD4/PilT-like ATPases. The STAND proteins are distinguished from other P-loop NTPases by the presence of unique sequence motifs associated with the N-terminal helix and the core strand-4, as well as a C-terminal helical bundle that is fused to the NTPase domain. This helical module contains a signature GxP motif in the loop between the two distal helices. With the exception of the archaeal families, almost all STAND NTPases are multidomain proteins containing three or more domains. In addition to the NTPase domain, these proteins typically contain DNA-binding or protein-binding domains, superstructure-forming repeats, such as WD40 and TPR, and enzymatic domains involved in signal transduction, including adenylate cyclases and kinases. By analogy to the AAA+ ATPases, it can be predicted that STAND NTPases use the C-terminal helical bundle as a "lever" to transmit the conformational changes brought about by NTP hydrolysis to effector domains. STAND NTPases represent a novel paradigm in signal transduction, whereby adaptor, regulatory switch, scaffolding, and, in some cases, signal-generating moieties are combined into a single polypeptide. The STAND class consists of 14 distinct families, and the evolutionary history of most of these families is riddled with dramatic instances of lineage-specific expansion and apparent horizontal gene transfer. The STAND NTPases are most abundant in developmentally and organizationally complex prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Transfer of genes for STAND NTPases from bacteria to eukaryotes on several occasions might have played a significant role in the evolution of eukaryotic signaling systems.
- Lahiri SD, Zhang G, Dai J, Dunaway-Mariano D, Allen KN
- Analysis of the substrate specificity loop of the HAD superfamily cap domain.
- Biochemistry. 2004; 43: 2812-20
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The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily includes a variety of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of substrate C-Cl, P-C, and P-OP bonds via nucleophilic substitution pathways. All members possess the alpha/beta core domain, and many also possess a small cap domain. The active site of the core domain is formed by four loops (corresponding to sequence motifs 1-4), which position substrate and cofactor-binding residues as well as the catalytic groups that mediate the "core" chemistry. The cap domain is responsible for the diversification of chemistry within the family. A tight beta-turn in the helix-loop-helix motif of the cap domain contains a stringently conserved Gly (within sequence motif 5), flanked by residues whose side chains contribute to the catalytic site formed at the domain-domain interface. To define the role of the conserved Gly in the structure and function of the cap domain loop of the HAD superfamily members phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase and beta-phosphoglucomutase, the Gly was mutated to Pro, Val, or Ala. The catalytic activity was severely reduced in each mutant. To examine the impact of Gly substitution on loop 5 conformation, the X-ray crystal structure of the Gly50Pro phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase mutant was determined. The altered backbone conformation at position 50 had a dramatic effect on the spatial disposition of the side chains of neighboring residues. Lys53, the Schiff Base forming lysine, had rotated out of the catalytic site and the side chain of Leu52 had moved to fill its place. On the basis of these studies, it was concluded that the flexibility afforded by the conserved Gly is critical to the function of loop 5 and that it is a marker by which the cap domain substrate specificity loop can be identified within the amino acid sequence of HAD family members.
- Shenroy AR, Visweswariah SS
- Class III nucleotide cyclases in bacteria and archaebacteria: lineage-specific expansion of adenylyl cyclases and a dearth of guanylyl cyclases.
- FEBS Lett. 2004; 561: 11-21
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The Class III nucleotide cyclases are found in bacteria, eukaryotes and archaebacteria. Our survey of the bacterial and archaebacterial genome and plasmid sequences identified 193 Class III cyclase genes in only 29 species, of which we predict the majority to be adenylyl cyclases. Interestingly, several putative cyclase genes were found to have non-conserved substrate specifying residues. Ancestors of the eukaryotic C1-C2 domain containing soluble adenylyl cyclases as well as the protist guanylyl cyclases were found in bacteria. Diverse domains were fused to the cyclase domain and phylogenetic analysis indicated that most proteins within a single cluster have similar domain compositions, emphasising the ancient evolutionary origin and versatility of the cyclase domain.
- Aravind L, Anantharaman V
- HutC/FarR-like bacterial transcription factors of the GntR family contain a small molecule-binding domain of the chorismate lyase fold.
- FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003; 222: 17-23
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Numerous bacterial transcription factors contain a DNA-binding helix-turn-helix domain and a signaling domain, linked together in a single polypeptide. Typically, this signaling domain is a small-molecule-binding domain that undergoes a conformational change upon recognizing a specific ligand. The HutC/FarR-like transcription factors of the GntR family are one of the largest groups of transcription factors in the proteomes of most free-living bacteria. Using sensitive sequence profile analysis we show that the HutC/FarR-like transcription factors contain a conserved ligand-binding domain, which possesses the same fold as chorismate lyase (Escherichia coli UbiC gene product). This relationship suggests that the C-terminal domain of the HutC/FarR-like transcription factors binds small molecules in a cleft similar to the substrate-binding site of the chorismate lyases. The sequence diversity within the predicted binding cleft of the HutC/FarR ligand-binding domains is consistent with the ability of these transcription factors to respond to diverse small molecules, such as histidine (HutC), fatty acids (FarR), sugars (TreR) and alkylphosphonate (PhnF). UbiC-like chorismate lyases function in the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway, and have characteristic charged, catalytic residues. Genome comparisons reveal that chorismate lyase orthologs are found in several bacteria, chloroplasts of eukaryotic algae and euryarchaea. In contrast, the GntR transcription regulators lack the conserved catalytic residues of the chorismate lyases, and have so far been detected only in bacteria. An ancestral, generic small-molecule-binding domain appears to have given rise to the enzymatic and non-catalytic ligand-binding versions of the same fold under the influence of different selective pressures.
- Shenoy AR, Srinivasan N, Subramaniam M, Visweswariah SS
- Mutational analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1625c adenylyl cyclase: residues that confer nucleotide specificity contribute to dimerization.
- FEBS Lett. 2003; 545: 253-9
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The mycobacterial Rv1625c gene product is an adenylyl cyclase with sequence similarity to the mammalian enzymes. The catalytic domain of the enzyme forms a homodimer and residues specifying adenosine triphosphate (ATP) specificity lie at the dimer interface. Mutation of these residues to those present in guanylyl cyclases failed to convert the enzyme to a guanylyl cyclase, but dramatically reduced its adenylyl cyclase activity and altered its oligomeric state. Computational modeling revealed subtle differences in the dimer interface that could explain the biochemical data, suggesting that the structural and catalytic features of this homodimeric adenylyl cyclase are in contrast to those of the heterodimeric mammalian enzymes.
- Lakaye B et al.
- Molecular characterization of a specific thiamine triphosphatase widely expressed in mammalian tissues.
- J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 13771-7
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Thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) is found at low concentrations in most animal tissues, and recent data suggest that it may act as a phosphate donor for the phosphorylation of some proteins. In the mammalian brain, ThTP synthesis is rapid, but its steady-state concentration remains low, presumably because of rapid hydrolysis. In this report we purified a soluble thiamine triphosphatase (ThTPase; EC ) from calf brain. The bovine ThTPase is a 24-kDa monomer, hydrolyzing ThTP with virtually absolute specificity. Partial sequence data obtained from the purified bovine enzyme by tandem mass spectrometry were used to search the GenBank data base. A significant identity was found with only one human sequence, the hypothetical 230-amino acid protein MGC2652. The coding regions from human and bovine brain mRNA were amplified by reverse transcription-PCR, cloned in Escherichia coli, and sequenced. The human open reading frame was expressed in E. coli as a GST fusion protein. Transformed bacteria had a high isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible ThTPase activity. The recombinant ThTPase had properties similar to those of human brain ThTPase, and it was specific for ThTP. The mRNA was expressed in most human tissues but at relatively low levels. This is the first report of a molecular characterization of a specific ThTPase.
- Hatley ME, Gilman AG, Sunahara RK
- Expression, purification, and assay of cytosolic (catalytic) domains of membrane-bound mammalian adenylyl cyclases.
- Methods Enzymol. 2002; 345: 127-40
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The identification and isolation of the soluble catalytic domains of adenylyl cyclase have provided investigators with useful reagents for the study of these enzymes. They have permitted detailed mechanistic investigation of the actions of forskolin, Gs alpha, and the inhibitory G protein, Gi alpha. They have served as critical reagents for the development of plausible models of the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. They have enabled X-ray crystallographic analysis of adenylyl cyclase; this technique was not approachable with the small quantities of the membrane-bound enzyme available previously. The information obtained by using the soluble domains of adenylyl cyclase has provided templates for description of the behavior of many forms of purine nucleotide cyclases from a variety of species. We now appreciate both adenylyl cyclases and guanylyl cyclases as dimeric enzymes with a 2-fold symmetrical domain arrangement (or pseudosymmetrical in the case of heterodimerization). The active sites are located at the interface between the two domains, both of which contribute binding surfaces.
- Makarova KS, Aravind L, Grishin NV, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV
- A DNA repair system specific for thermophilic Archaea and bacteria predicted by genomic context analysis.
- Nucleic Acids Res. 2002; 30: 482-96
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During a systematic analysis of conserved gene context in prokaryotic genomes, a previously undetected, complex, partially conserved neighborhood consisting of more than 20 genes was discovered in most Archaea (with the exception of Thermoplasma acidophilum and Halobacterium NRC-1) and some bacteria, including the hyperthermophiles Thermotoga maritima and Aquifex aeolicus. The gene composition and gene order in this neighborhood vary greatly between species, but all versions have a stable, conserved core that consists of five genes. One of the core genes encodes a predicted DNA helicase, often fused to a predicted HD-superfamily hydrolase, and another encodes a RecB family exonuclease; three core genes remain uncharacterized, but one of these might encode a nuclease of a new family. Two more genes that belong to this neighborhood and are present in most of the genomes in which the neighborhood was detected encode, respectively, a predicted HD-superfamily hydrolase (possibly a nuclease) of a distinct family and a predicted, novel DNA polymerase. Another characteristic feature of this neighborhood is the expansion of a superfamily of paralogous, uncharacterized proteins, which are encoded by at least 20-30% of the genes in the neighborhood. The functional features of the proteins encoded in this neighborhood suggest that they comprise a previously undetected DNA repair system, which, to our knowledge, is the first repair system largely specific for thermophiles to be identified. This hypothetical repair system might be functionally analogous to the bacterial-eukaryotic system of translesion, mutagenic repair whose central components are DNA polymerases of the UmuC-DinB-Rad30-Rev1 superfamily, which typically are missing in thermophiles.
- Shiba T, Tsutsumi K, Ishige K, Noguchi T
- Inorganic polyphosphate and polyphosphate kinase: their novel biological functions and applications.
- Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000; 65: 315-23
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In this review, we discuss the following two subjects: 1) the physiological function of polyphosphate (poly(P)) as a regulatory factor for gene expression in Escherichia coli, and 2) novel functions of E. coli polyphosphate kinase (PPK) and their applications. With regard to the first subject, it has been shown that E. coli cells in which yeast exopolyphosphatase (poly(P)ase), PPX1, was overproduced reduced resistance to H2O2 and heat shock as did a mutant whose polyphosphate kinase gene is disrupted. Sensitivity to H2O2 and heat shock evinced by cells that overproduce PPX1 is attributed to depressed levels of rpoS expression. Since rpoS is a central element in a regulatory network that governs the expression of stationary-phase-induced genes, poly(P) affects the expression of many genes through controlling rpoS expression. Furthermore, poly(P) is also involved in expression of other stress-inducible genes that are not directly regulated by rpoS. The second subject includes the application of novel functions of PPK for nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) regeneration. Recently E. coli PPK has been found to catalyze the kination of not only ADP but also other nucleoside diphosphates using poly(P) as a phospho-donor, yielding NTPs. This nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity of PPK was confirmed to be available for NTP regeneration essential for enzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis using the sugar nucleotide cycling method. PPK has also been found to express a poly(P):AMP phosphotransferase activity by coupling with adenylate kinase (ADK) in E. coli. The ATP-regeneration system consisting of ADK, PPK, and poly(P) was shown to be promising for practical utilization of poly(P) as ATP substitute.
- Koonin EV, Wolf YI, Kondrashov AS, Aravind L
- Bacterial homologs of the small subunit of eukaryotic DNA primase.
- J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000; 2: 509-12
- Aravind L
- Guilt by association: contextual information in genome analysis.
- Genome Res. 2000; 10: 1074-7
- Ponting CP, Aravind L, Schultz J, Bork P, Koonin EV
- Eukaryotic signalling domain homologues in archaea and bacteria. Ancient ancestry and horizontal gene transfer.
- J Mol Biol. 1999; 289: 729-45
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Phyletic distributions of eukaryotic signalling domains were studied using recently developed sensitive methods for protein sequence analysis, with an emphasis on the detection and accurate enumeration of homologues in bacteria and archaea. A major difference was found between the distributions of enzyme families that are typically found in all three divisions of cellular life and non-enzymatic domain families that are usually eukaryote-specific. Previously undetected bacterial homologues were identified for# plant pathogenesis-related proteins, Pad1, von Willebrand factor type A, src homology 3 and YWTD repeat-containing domains. Comparisons of the domain distributions in eukaryotes and prokaryotes enabled distinctions to be made between the domains originating prior to the last common ancestor of all known life forms and those apparently originating as consequences of horizontal gene transfer events. A number of transfers of signalling domains from eukaryotes to bacteria were confidently identified, in contrast to only a single case of apparent transfer from eukaryotes to archaea.
- Cuff JA, Clamp ME, Siddiqui AS, Finlay M, Barton GJ
- JPred: a consensus secondary structure prediction server.
- Bioinformatics. 1998; 14: 892-3
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An interactive protein secondary structure prediction Internet server is presented. The server allows a single sequence or multiple alignment to be submitted, and returns predictions from six secondary structure prediction algorithms that exploit evolutionary information from multiple sequences. A consensus prediction is also returned which improves the average Q3 accuracy of prediction by 1% to 72.9%. The server simplifies the use of current prediction algorithms and allows conservation patterns important to structure and function to be identified. AVAILABILITY: http://barton.ebi.ac.uk/servers/jpred.h tml CONTACT: email@example.com
- Aravind L, Koonin EV
- A novel family of predicted phosphoesterases includes Drosophila prune protein and bacterial RecJ exonuclease.
- Trends Biochem Sci. 1998; 23: 17-9
- Dandekar T, Snel B, Huynen M, Bork P
- Conservation of gene order: a fingerprint of proteins that physically interact.
- Trends Biochem Sci. 1998; 23: 324-8
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A systematic comparison of nine bacterial and archaeal genomes reveals a low level of gene-order (and operon architecture) conservation. Nevertheless, a number of gene pairs are conserved. The proteins encoded by conserved gene pairs appear to interact physically. This observation can therefore be used to predict functions of, and interactions between, prokaryotic gene products.
- Altschul SF et al.
- Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs.
- Nucleic Acids Res. 1997; 25: 3389-402
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The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.
- Schultz JE, Klumpp S
- Cyclic GMP in lower forms.
- Adv Pharmacol. 1994; 26: 285-303