Secondary literature sources for CHB_HEX
The following references were automatically generated.
- Kuusk S, Sorlie M, Valjamae P
- The predominant molecular state of bound enzyme determines the strength and type of product inhibition in the hydrolysis of recalcitrant polysaccharides by processive enzymes.
- J Biol Chem. 2015; 290: 11678-91
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Processive enzymes are major components of the efficient enzyme systems that are responsible for the degradation of the recalcitrant polysaccharides cellulose and chitin. Despite intensive research, there is no consensus on which step is rate-limiting for these enzymes. Here, we performed a comparative study of two well characterized enzymes, the cellobiohydrolase Cel7A from Hypocrea jecorina and the chitinase ChiA from Serratia marcescens. Both enzymes were inhibited by their disaccharide product, namely chitobiose for ChiA and cellobiose for Cel7A. The products behaved as noncompetitive inhibitors according to studies using the (14)C-labeled crystalline polymeric substrates (14)C chitin nanowhiskers and (14)C-labeled bacterial microcrystalline cellulose for ChiA and Cel7A, respectively. The resulting observed Ki (obs) values were 0.45 +/- 0.08 mm for ChiA and 0.17 +/- 0.02 mm for Cel7A. However, in contrast to ChiA, the Ki (obs) of Cel7A was an order of magnitude higher than the true Ki value governed by the thermodynamic stability of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Theoretical analysis of product inhibition suggested that the inhibition strength and pattern can be accounted for by assuming different rate-limiting steps for ChiA and Cel7A. Measuring the population of enzymes whose active site was occupied by a polymer chain revealed that Cel7A was bound predominantly via its active site. Conversely, the active-site-mediated binding of ChiA was slow, and most ChiA exhibited a free active site, even when the substrate concentration was saturating for the activity. Collectively, our data suggest that complexation with the polymer chain is rate-limiting for ChiA, whereas Cel7A is limited by dissociation.
- Herlihey FA, Moynihan PJ, Clarke AJ
- The essential protein for bacterial flagella formation FlgJ functions as a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase.
- J Biol Chem. 2014; 289: 31029-42
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The flagellum is a major virulence factor of motile pathogenic bacteria. This structure requires more than 50 proteins for its biogenesis and function, one of which is FlgJ. Homologs of FlgJ produced by the beta- and gamma-proteobacteria, such as Salmonella enterica, Vibrio spp., and both Sphingomonas sp. and Pseudomonas spp. are bifunctional, possessing an N-terminal domain responsible for proper rod assembly and a C-terminal domain possessing peptidoglycan lytic activity. Despite the amount of research conducted on FlgJ from these and other bacteria over the past 15 years, no biochemical analysis had been conducted on any FlgJ and consequently confusion exists as to whether the enzyme is a peptidoglycan hydrolase or a lytic transglycosylase. In this study, we present the development of a novel assay for glycoside lytic enzymes and its use to provide the first enzymatic characterization of the lytic domain of FlgJ from S. enterica as the model enzyme. Surprisingly, FlgJ functions as neither a muramidase nor a lytic transglycosylases but rather as a beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase. As such, FlgJ represents the first autolysin with this activity to be characterized from a Gram-negative bacterium. At its optimal pH of 4.0, the Michaelis-Menten parameters of K(m) and k(cat) for FlgJ from S. enterica were determined to be 0.64 +/- 0.18 mg ml(-1) and 0.13 +/- 0.016 s(-1), respectively, using purified PG as substrate. Its catalytic residues were identified as Glu(184) and Glu(223).
- Liu T et al.
- Structural insights into cellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes revealing crucial residues of insect beta-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase.
- PLoS One. 2012; 7: 52225-52225
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The chemical similarity of cellulose and chitin supports the idea that their corresponding hydrolytic enzymes would bind beta-1,4-linked glucose residues in a similar manner. A structural and mutational analysis was performed for the plant cellulolytic enzyme BGlu1 from Oryza sativa and the insect chitinolytic enzyme OfHex1 from Ostrinia furnacalis. Although BGlu1 shows little amino-acid sequence or topological similarity with OfHex1, three residues (Trp(490), Glu(328), Val(327) in OfHex1, and Trp(358), Tyr(131) and Ile(179) in BGlu1) were identified as being conserved in the +1 sugar binding site. OfHex1 Glu(328) together with Trp(490) was confirmed to be necessary for substrate binding. The mutant E328A exhibited a 8-fold increment in K(m) for (GlcNAc)(2) and a 42-fold increment in K(i) for TMG-chitotriomycin. A crystal structure of E328A in complex with TMG-chitotriomycin was resolved at 2.5 A, revealing the obvious conformational changes of the catalytic residues (Glu(368) and Asp(367)) and the absence of the hydrogen bond between E328A and the C3-OH of the +1 sugar. V327G exhibited the same activity as the wild-type, but acquired the ability to efficiently hydrolyse beta-1,2-linked GlcNAc in contrast to the wild-type. Thus, Glu(328) and Val(327) were identified as important for substrate-binding and as glycosidic-bond determinants. A structure-based sequence alignment confirmed the spatial conservation of these three residues in most plant cellulolytic, insect and bacterial chitinolytic enzymes.
- Suginta W, Chuenark D, Mizuhara M, Fukamizo T
- Novel beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Vibrio harveyi 650: cloning, expression, enzymatic properties, and subsite identification.
- BMC Biochem. 2010; 11: 40-40
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BACKGROUND: Since chitin is a highly abundant natural biopolymer, many attempts have been made to convert this insoluble polysaccharide into commercially valuable products using chitinases and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases). We have previously reported the structure and function of chitinase A from Vibrio harveyi 650. This study t reports the identification of two GlcNAcases from the same organism and their detailed functional characterization. RESULTS: The genes encoding two new members of family-20 GlcNAcases were isolated from the genome of V. harveyi 650, cloned and expressed at a high level in E. coli. VhNag1 has a molecular mass of 89 kDa and an optimum pH of 7.5, whereas VhNag2 has a molecular mass of 73 kDa and an optimum pH of 7.0. The recombinant GlcNAcases were found to hydrolyze all the natural substrates, VhNag2 being ten-fold more active than VhNag1. Product analysis by TLC and quantitative HPLC suggested that VhNag2 degraded chitooligosaccharides in a sequential manner, its highest activity being with chitotetraose. Kinetic modeling of the enzymic reaction revealed that binding at subsites (-2) and (+4) had unfavorable (positive) binding free energy changes and that the binding pocket of VhNag2 contains four GlcNAc binding subsites, designated (-1),(+1),(+2), and (+3). CONCLUSIONS: Two novel GlcNAcases were identified as exolytic enzymes that degraded chitin oligosaccharides, releasing GlcNAc as the end product. In living cells, these intracellular enzymes may work after endolytic chitinases to complete chitin degradation. The availability of the two GlcNAcases, together with the previously-reported chitinase A from the same organism, suggests that a systematic development of the chitin-degrading enzymes may provide a valuable tool in commercial chitin bioconversion.
- Gloster TM, Davies GJ
- Glycosidase inhibition: assessing mimicry of the transition state.
- Org Biomol Chem. 2010; 8: 305-20
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Glycoside hydrolases, the enzymes responsible for hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond in di-, oligo- and polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates, are ubiquitous in Nature and fundamental to existence. The extreme stability of the glycosidic bond has meant these enzymes have evolved into highly proficient catalysts, with an estimated 10(17) fold rate enhancement over the uncatalysed reaction. Such rate enhancements mean that enzymes bind the substrate at the transition state with extraordinary affinity; the dissociation constant for the transition state is predicted to be 10(-22) M. Inhibition of glycoside hydrolases has widespread application in the treatment of viral infections, such as influenza and HIV, lysosomal storage disorders, cancer and diabetes. If inhibitors are designed to mimic the transition state, it should be possible to harness some of the transition state affinity, resulting in highly potent and specific drugs. Here we examine a number of glycosidase inhibitors which have been developed over the past half century, either by Nature or synthetically by man. A number of criteria have been proposed to ascertain which of these inhibitors are true transition state mimics, but these features have only be critically investigated in a very few cases.
- Dodd D, Cann IK
- Enzymatic deconstruction of xylan for biofuel production.
- Glob Change Biol Bioenergy. 2009; 1: 2-17
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The combustion of fossil-derived fuels has a significant impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels and correspondingly is an important contributor to anthropogenic global climate change. Plants have evolved photosynthetic mechanisms in which solar energy is used to fix CO(2) into carbohydrates. Thus, combustion of biofuels, derived from plant biomass, can be considered a potentially carbon neutral process. One of the major limitations for efficient conversion of plant biomass to biofuels is the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall, which is composed mostly of lignocellulosic materials (lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose). The heteropolymer xylan represents the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharide and is composed primarily of xylose, arabinose, and glucuronic acid. Microbes have evolved a plethora of enzymatic strategies for hydrolyzing xylan into its constituent sugars for subsequent fermentation to biofuels. Therefore, microorganisms are considered an important source of biocatalysts in the emerging biofuel industry. To produce an optimized enzymatic cocktail for xylan deconstruction, it will be valuable to gain insight at the molecular level of the chemical linkages and the mechanisms by which these enzymes recognize their substrates and catalyze their reactions. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and structural biology have revolutionized our understanding of the microbial xylanolytic enzymes. This review focuses on current understanding of the molecular basis for substrate specificity and catalysis by enzymes involved in xylan deconstruction.
- Cui Z, Maruyama Y, Mikami B, Hashimoto W, Murata K
- Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 78 alpha-L-Rhamnosidase from Bacillus sp. GL1.
- J Mol Biol. 2007; 374: 384-98
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alpha-L-Rhamnosidase (EC 220.127.116.11) catalyzes the hydrolytic release of rhamnose from polysaccharides and glycosides. Bacillus sp. GL1 alpha-L-rhamnosidase (RhaB), a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 78, is responsible for degrading the bacterial biofilm gellan, and also functions as a debittering agent for citrus fruit in the food and beverage industries through the release of rhamnose from plant glycoside, naringin. The X-ray crystal structure of RhaB was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using a selenomethionine derivative and refined at 1.9 A resolution with a final R-factor of 18.2%. As is seen in the homodimeric form of the active enzyme, the structure of RhaB in crystal packing is a homodimer containing 1908 amino acids (residues 3-956), 43 glycerol molecules, four calcium ions, and 1755 water molecules. The overall structure consists of five domains, four of which are beta-sandwich structures designated as domains N, D1, D2, and C, and an (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel structure designated as domain A. Structural comparison by DALI showed that RhaB shares its highest level of structural similarity with chitobiose phosphorylase (Z score of 25.3). The structure of RhaB in complex with the reaction product rhamnose (inhibitor constant, K(i)=1.8 mM) was also determined and refined at 2.1 A with a final R-factor of 19.5%. Rhamnose is bound to the deep cleft of the (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel domain, as is seen in the clan-L GHs. Several negatively charged residues, such as Asp567, Glu572, Asp579, and Glu841, conserved in GH family 78 enzymes, interact with rhamnose, and RhaB mutants of these residues have drastically reduced enzyme activity, indicating that the residues are crucial for enzyme catalysis and/or substrate binding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of the crystal structure of alpha-L-rhamnosidase and identification of its clan-L (alpha/alpha)(6)-barrel as a catalytic domain.
- Stern R, Jedrzejas MJ
- Hyaluronidases: their genomics, structures, and mechanisms of action.
- Chem Rev. 2006; 106: 818-39
- Yu Y et al.
- A catalytic mechanism revealed by the crystal structures of the imidazolonepropionase from Bacillus subtilis.
- J Biol Chem. 2006; 281: 36929-36
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Imidazolonepropionase (EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the third step in the universal histidine degradation pathway, hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bonds in 4-imidazolone-5-propionic acid to yield N-formimino-l-glutamic acid. Here we report the crystal structures of the Bacillus subtilis imidazolonepropionase and its complex at 2.0-A resolution with substrate analog imidazole-4-acetic acid sodium (I4AA). The structure of the native enzyme contains two domains, a TIM (triose-phosphate isomerase) barrel domain with two insertions and a small beta-sandwich domain. The TIM barrel domain is quite similar to the members of the alpha/beta barrel metallo-dependent hydrolase superfamily, especially to Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase. A metal ion was found in the central cavity of the TIM barrel and was tightly coordinated to residues His-80, His-82, His-249, Asp-324, and a water molecule. X-ray fluorescence scan analysis confirmed that the bound metal ion was a zinc ion. An acetate ion, 6 A away from the zinc ion, was also found in the potential active site. In the complex structure with I4AA, a substrate analog, I4AA replaced the acetate ion and contacted with Arg-89, Try-102, Tyr-152, His-185, and Glu-252, further defining and confirming the active site. The detailed structural studies allowed us to propose a zinc-activated nucleophilic attack mechanism for the hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by the enzyme.
- Brux C et al.
- The structure of an inverting GH43 beta-xylosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus with its substrate reveals the role of the three catalytic residues.
- J Mol Biol. 2006; 359: 97-109
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beta-D-Xylosidases are glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the release of xylose units from short xylooligosaccharides and are engaged in the final breakdown of plant cell-wall hemicellulose. Here we describe the enzyme-substrate crystal structure of an inverting family 43 beta-xylosidase, from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 (XynB3). Each XynB3 monomeric subunit is organized in two domains: an N-terminal five-bladed beta-propeller catalytic domain, and a beta-sandwich domain. The active site possesses a pocket topology, which is mainly constructed from the beta-propeller domain residues, and is closed on one side by a loop that originates from the beta-sandwich domain. This loop restricts the length of xylose units that can enter the active site, consistent with the exo mode of action of the enzyme. Structures of the enzyme-substrate (xylobiose) complex provide insights into the role of the three catalytic residues. The xylose moiety at the -1 subsite is held by a large number of hydrogen bonds, whereas only one hydroxyl of the xylose unit at the +1 subsite can create hydrogen bonds with the enzyme. The general base, Asp15, is located on the alpha-side of the -1 xylose sugar ring, 5.2 Angstroms from the anomeric carbon. This location enables it to activate a water molecule for a single-displacement attack on the anomeric carbon, resulting in inversion of the anomeric configuration. Glu187, the general acid, is 2.4 Angstroms from the glycosidic oxygen atom and can protonate the leaving aglycon. The third catalytic carboxylic acid, Asp128, is 4 Angstroms from the general acid; modulating its pK(a) and keeping it in the correct orientation relative to the substrate. In addition, Asp128 plays an important role in substrate binding via the 2-O of the glycon, which is important for the transition-state stabilization. Taken together, these key roles explain why Asp128 is an invariant among all five-bladed beta-propeller glycoside hydrolases.
- Yoshimoto T et al.
- Crystal structures of creatininase reveal the substrate binding site and provide an insight into the catalytic mechanism.
- J Mol Biol. 2004; 337: 399-416
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Creatininase from Pseudomonas putida is a member of the urease-related amidohydrolase superfamily. The crystal structure of the Mn-activated enzyme has been solved by the single isomorphous replacement method at 1.8A resolution. The structures of the native creatininase and the Mn-activated creatininase-creatine complex have been determined by a difference Fourier method at 1.85 A and 1.6 A resolution, respectively. We found the disc-shaped hexamer to be roughly 100 A in diameter and 50 A in thickness and arranged as a trimer of dimers with 32 (D3) point group symmetry. The enzyme is a typical Zn2+ enzyme with a binuclear metal center (metal1 and metal2). Atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray crystallography revealed that Zn2+ at metal1 (Zn1) was easily replaced with Mn2+ (Mn1). In the case of the Mn-activated enzyme, metal1 (Mn1) has a square-pyramidal geometry bound to three protein ligands of Glu34, Asp45, and His120 and two water molecules. Metal2 (Zn2) has a well-ordered tetrahedral geometry bound to the three protein ligands of His36, Asp45, and Glu183 and a water molecule. The crystal structure of the Mn-activated creatininase-creatine complex, which is the first structure as the enzyme-substrate/inhibitor complex of creatininase, reveals that significant conformation changes occur at the flap (between the alpha5 helix and the alpha6 helix) of the active site and the creatine is accommodated in a hydrophobic pocket consisting of Trp174, Trp154, Tyr121, Phe182, Tyr153, and Gly119. The high-resolution crystal structure of the creatininase-creatine complex enables us to identify two water molecules (Wat1 and Wat2) that are possibly essential for the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. The structure and proposed catalytic mechanism of the creatininase are different from those of urease-related amidohydrolase superfamily enzymes. We propose a new two-step catalytic mechanism possibly common to creatininases in which the Wat1 acts as the attacking nucleophile in the water-adding step and the Wat2 acts as the catalytic acid in the ring-opening step.
- Im YJ et al.
- The active site of a lon protease from Methanococcus jannaschii distinctly differs from the canonical catalytic Dyad of Lon proteases.
- J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 53451-7
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ATP-dependent Lon proteases catalyze the degradation of various regulatory proteins and abnormal proteins within cells. Methanococcus jannaschii Lon (Mj-Lon) is a homologue of Escherichia coli Lon (Ec-Lon) but has two transmembrane helices within its N-terminal ATPase domain. We solved the crystal structure of the proteolytic domain of Mj-Lon using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion, refining it to 1.9-angstroms resolution. The structure displays an overall fold conserved in the proteolytic domain of Ec-Lon; however, the active site shows uniquely configured catalytic Ser-Lys-Asp residues that are not seen in Ec-Lon, which contains a catalytic dyad. In Mj-Lon, the C-terminal half of the beta4-alpha2 segment is an alpha-helix, whereas it is a beta-strand in Ec-Lon. Consequently, the configurations of the active sites differ due to the formation of a salt bridge between Asp-547 and Lys-593 in Mj-Lon. Moreover, unlike Ec-Lon, Mj-Lon has a buried cavity in the region of the active site containing three water molecules, one of which is hydrogen-bonded to catalytic Ser-550. The geometry and environment of the active site residues in Mj-Lon suggest that the charged Lys-593 assists in lowering the pK(a) of the Ser-550 hydroxyl group via its electrostatic potential, and the water in the cavity acts as a proton acceptor during catalysis. Extensive sequence alignment and comparison of the structures of the proteolytic domains clearly indicate that Lon proteases can be classified into two groups depending on active site configuration and the presence of DGPSA or (D/E)GDSA consensus sequences, as represented by Ec-Lon and Mj-Lon.
- Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH
- Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by an endogenous beta-hexosaminidase activity.
- J Bacteriol. 2003; 185: 4693-8
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When cultured in broth, fresh clinical isolates of the gram-negative periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans form tenaciously adherent biofilm colonies on surfaces such as plastic and glass. These biofilm colonies release adherent cells into the medium, and the released cells can attach to the surface of the culture vessel and form new colonies, enabling the biofilm to spread. We mutagenized A. actinomycetemcomitans clinical strain CU1000 with transposon IS903phikan and isolated a transposon insertion mutant that formed biofilm colonies which were tightly adherent to surfaces but which lacked the ability to release cells into the medium and disperse. The transposon insertion in the mutant strain mapped to a gene, designated dspB, that was predicted to encode a secreted protein homologous to the catalytic domain of the family 20 glycosyl hydrolases. A plasmid carrying a wild-type dspB gene restored the ability of biofilm colonies of the mutant strain to disperse. We expressed A. actinomycetemcomitans DspB protein engineered to contain a hexahistidine metal-binding site at its C terminus in Escherichia coli and purified the protein by using Ni affinity chromatography. Substrate specificity studies performed with monosaccharides labeled with 4-nitrophenyl groups showed that DspB hydrolyzed the 1-->4 glycosidic bond of beta-substituted N-acetylglucosamine, which is consistent with the known functions of other family 20 glycosyl hydrolases. When added to culture medium, purified DspB protein, but not heat-inactivated DspB, restored the ability of the mutant strain to release cells and disperse. DspB protein also caused the detachment of cells from preformed biofilm colonies of strain CU1000 grown attached to plastic and the disaggregation of highly autoaggregated clumps of CU1000 cells in solution. We concluded that dspB encodes a soluble beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase that causes detachment and dispersion of A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells.
- Marco-Marin C, Ramon-Maiques S, Tavarez S, Rubio V
- Site-directed mutagenesis of Escherichia coli acetylglutamate kinase and aspartokinase III probes the catalytic and substrate-binding mechanisms of these amino acid kinase family enzymes and allows three-dimensional modelling of aspartokinase.
- J Mol Biol. 2003; 334: 459-76
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We test, using site-directed mutagenesis, predictions based on the X-ray structure of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK), the paradigm of the amino acid kinase protein family, about the roles of specific residues on substrate binding and catalysis. The mutations K8R and D162E decreased V([sustrate]= infinity ) 100-fold and 1000-fold, respectively, in agreement with the predictions that K8 catalyzes phosphoryl transfer and D162 organizes the catalytic groups. R66K and N158Q increased selectively K(m)(Asp) three to four orders of magnitude, in agreement with the binding of R66 and N158 to the C(alpha) substituents of NAG. Mutagenesis in parallel of aspartokinase III (AKIII phosphorylates aspartate instead of acetylglutamate), another important amino acid kinase family member of unknown 3-D structure, identified in AKIII two residues, K8 and D202, that appear to play roles similar to those of K8 and D162 of NAGK, and supports the involvement of E119 and R198, similarly to R66 and N158 of NAGK, in the binding of the amino acid substrate, apparently interacting, respectively, with the alpha-NH(3)(+) and alpha-COO(-) of aspartate. These results and an improved alignment of the NAGK and AKIII sequences have guided us into 3-D modelling of the amino acid kinase domain of AKIII using NAGK as template. The model has good stereochemistry and validation parameters. It provides insight into substrate binding and catalysis, agreeing with mutagenesis results with another aspartokinase that were not considered when building the model.AKIII is homodimeric and is inhibited by lysine. Lysine may bind to a regulatory region that is C-terminal to the amino acid kinase domain. We make a C-terminally truncated AKIII (AKIIIt) and show that the C-region is involved in intersubunit interactions, since AKIIIt is found to be monomeric. Further, it is inactive, as demanded if dimer formation is essential for activity. Models for AKIII architecture are proposed that account for these findings.
- Han S, Arvai AS, Clancy SB, Tainer JA
- Crystal structure and novel recognition motif of rho ADP-ribosylating C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum: structural insights for recognition specificity and catalysis.
- J Mol Biol. 2001; 305: 95-107
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Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme inactivates the small GTP-binding protein family Rho by ADP-ribosylating asparagine 41, which depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton. C3 thus represents a major family of the bacterial toxins that transfer the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to specific amino acids in acceptor proteins to modify key biological activities in eukaryotic cells, including protein synthesis, differentiation, transformation, and intracellular signaling. The 1.7 A resolution C3 exoenzyme structure establishes the conserved features of the core NAD-binding beta-sandwich fold with other ADP-ribosylating toxins despite little sequence conservation. Importantly, the central core of the C3 exoenzyme structure is distinguished by the absence of an active site loop observed in many other ADP-ribosylating toxins. Unlike the ADP-ribosylating toxins that possess the active site loop near the central core, the C3 exoenzyme replaces the active site loop with an alpha-helix, alpha3. Moreover, structural and sequence similarities with the catalytic domain of vegetative insecticidal protein 2 (VIP2), an actin ADP-ribosyltransferase, unexpectedly implicates two adjacent, protruding turns, which join beta5 and beta6 of the toxin core fold, as a novel recognition specificity motif for this newly defined toxin family. Turn 1 evidently positions the solvent-exposed, aromatic side-chain of Phe209 to interact with the hydrophobic region of Rho adjacent to its GTP-binding site. Turn 2 evidently both places the Gln212 side-chain for hydrogen bonding to recognize Rho Asn41 for nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon of NAD ribose and holds the key Glu214 catalytic side-chain in the adjacent catalytic pocket. This proposed bipartite ADP-ribosylating toxin turn-turn (ARTT) motif places the VIP2 and C3 toxin classes into a single ARTT family characterized by analogous target protein recognition via turn 1 aromatic and turn 2 hydrogen-bonding side-chain moieties. Turn 2 centrally anchors the catalytic Glu214 within the ARTT motif, and furthermore distinguishes the C3 toxin class by a conserved turn 2 Gln and the VIP2 binary toxin class by a conserved turn 2 Glu for appropriate target side-chain hydrogen-bonding recognition. Taken together, these structural results provide a molecular basis for understanding the coupled activity and recognition specificity for C3 and for the newly defined ARTT toxin family, which acts in the depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. This beta5 to beta6 region of the toxin fold represents an experimentally testable and potentially general recognition motif region for other ADP-ribosylating toxins that have a similar beta-structure framework.
- Lonhienne T, Mavromatis K, Vorgias CE, Buchon L, Gerday C, Bouriotis V
- Cloning, sequences, and characterization of two chitinase genes from the Antarctic Arthrobacter sp. strain TAD20: isolation and partial characterization of the enzymes.
- J Bacteriol. 2001; 183: 1773-9
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Arthrobacter sp. strain TAD20, a chitinolytic gram-positive organism, was isolated from the sea bottom along the Antarctic ice shell. Arthrobacter sp. strain TAD20 secretes two major chitinases, ChiA and ChiB (ArChiA and ArChiB), in response to chitin induction. A single chromosomal DNA fragment containing the genes coding for both chitinases was cloned in Escherichia coli. DNA sequencing analysis of this fragment revealed two contiguous open reading frames coding for the precursors of ArChiA (881 amino acids [aa]) and ArChiB (578 aa). ArChiA and ArChiB are modular enzymes consisting of a glycosyl-hydrolase family 18 catalytic domain as well as two and one chitin-binding domains, respectively. The catalytic domain of ArChiA exhibits 55% identity with a chitodextrinase from Vibrio furnissii. The ArChiB catalytic domain exhibits 33% identity with chitinase A of Bacillus circulans. The ArChiA chitin-binding domains are homologous to the chitin-binding domain of ArChiB. ArChiA and ArChiB were purified to homogeneity from the native Arthrobacter strain and partially characterized. Thermal unfolding of ArChiA, ArChiB, and chitinase A of Serratia marcescens was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. ArChiA and ArChiB, compared to their mesophilic counterpart, exhibited increased heat lability, similar to other cold-adapted enzymes.
- Prag G, Papanikolau Y, Tavlas G, Vorgias CE, Petratos K, Oppenheim AB
- Structures of chitobiase mutants complexed with the substrate Di-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine: the catalytic role of the conserved acidic pair, aspartate 539 and glutamate 540.
- J Mol Biol. 2000; 300: 611-7
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The catalytic domain of chitobiase (beta-N-1-4 acetylhexosaminidase) from Serratia marcescens, is an alpha/beta TIM-barrel. This enzyme belongs to family 20 of glycosyl hydrolases in which a conserved amino acid pair, aspartate-glutamate, is present (Asp539-Glu540). It was proposed that catalysis by this enzyme family is carried out by glutamate 540 acting as a proton donor and by the acetamido group of the substrate as a nucleophile. We investigated the role of Asp539 and Glu540 by site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and by structural analyses of chitobiase -substrate co-crystals. We found that both residues are essential for chitobiase activity. The mutations, however, led to subtle changes in the catalytic site. Our results support the model that Glu540 acts as the proton donor and that Asp539 acts in several different ways. Asp539 restrains the acetamido group of the substrate in a specific orientation by forming a hydrogen bond with N2 of the non-reduced (-1) sugar. In addition, this residue participates in substrate binding. It is also required for the correct positioning of Glu540 and may provide additional negative charge at the active site. Thus, these biochemical and structural studies provide a molecular explanation for the functional importance and conservation of these residues.
- Nakai T et al.
- Crystal structure of N-carbamyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase with a novel catalytic framework common to amidohydrolases.
- Structure. 2000; 8: 729-37
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BACKGROUND: N-carbamyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase (DCase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-carbamyl-D-amino acids to the corresponding D-amino acids, which are useful intermediates in the preparation of beta-lactam antibiotics. To understand the catalytic mechanism of N-carbamyl-D-amino acid hydrolysis, the substrate specificity and thermostability of the enzyme, we have determined the structure of DCase from Agrobacterium sp. strain KNK712. RESULTS: The crystal structure of DCase has been determined to 1.7 A resolution. The enzyme forms a homotetramer and each monomer consists of a variant of the alpha + beta fold. The topology of the enzyme comprises a sandwich of parallel beta sheets surrounded by two layers of alpha helices, this topology has not been observed in other amidohydrolases such as the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolases. CONCLUSIONS: The catalytic center could be identified and consists of Glu46, Lys126 and Cys171. Cys171 was found to be the catalytic nucleophile, and its nucleophilic character appeared to be increased through general-base activation by Glu46. DCase shows only weak sequence similarity with a family of amidohydrolases, including beta-alanine synthase, aliphatic amidases and nitrilases, but might share highly conserved residues in a novel framework, which could provide a possible explanation for the catalytic mechanism for this family of enzymes.
- Czjzek M, Cicek M, Zamboni V, Bevan DR, Henrissat B, Esen A
- The mechanism of substrate (aglycone) specificity in beta -glucosidases is revealed by crystal structures of mutant maize beta -glucosidase-DIMBOA, -DIMBOAGlc, and -dhurrin complexes.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000; 97: 13555-60
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The mechanism and the site of substrate (i.e., aglycone) recognition and specificity were investigated in maize beta-glucosidase (Glu1) by x-ray crystallography by using crystals of a catalytically inactive mutant (Glu1E191D) in complex with the natural substrate 2-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOAGlc), the free aglycone DIMBOA, and competitive inhibitor para-hydroxy-S-mandelonitrile beta-glucoside (dhurrin). The structures of these complexes and of the free enzyme were solved at 2.1-, 2.1-, 2.0-, and 2.2-A resolution, respectively. The structural data from the complexes allowed us to visualize an intact substrate, free aglycone, or a competitive inhibitor in the slot-like active site of a beta-glucosidase. These data show that the aglycone moiety of the substrate is sandwiched between W378 on one side and F198, F205, and F466 on the other. Thus, specific conformations of these four hydrophobic amino acids and the shape of the aglycone-binding site they form determine aglycone recognition and substrate specificity in Glu1. In addition to these four residues, A467 interacts with the 7-methoxy group of DIMBOA. All residues but W378 are variable among beta-glucosidases that differ in substrate specificity, supporting the conclusion that these sites are the basis of aglycone recognition and binding (i.e., substrate specificity) in beta-glucosidases. The data also provide a plausible explanation for the competitive binding of dhurrin to maize beta-glucosidases with high affinity without being hydrolyzed.
- Morais MC, Zhang W, Baker AS, Zhang G, Dunaway-Mariano D, Allen KN
- The crystal structure of bacillus cereus phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase: insight into catalysis of phosphorus bond cleavage and catalytic diversification within the HAD enzyme superfamily.
- Biochemistry. 2000; 39: 10385-96
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Phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphonoacetaldehyde to acetaldehyde and phosphate using Mg(II) as cofactor. The reaction proceeds via a novel bicovalent catalytic mechanism in which an active-site nucleophile abstracts the phosphoryl group from the Schiff-base intermediate formed from Lys53 and phosphonoacetaldehyde. In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the Bacillus cereus phosphonatase homodimer complexed with the phosphate (product) analogue tungstate (K(i) = 50 microM) and the Mg(II) cofactor was determined to 3.0 A resolution with an R(cryst) = 0.248 and R(free) = 0.284. Each monomer is made up of an alpha/beta core domain consisting of a centrally located six-stranded parallel beta-sheet surrounded by six alpha-helices. Two flexible, solvated linkers connect to a small cap domain (residues 21-99) that consists of an antiparallel, five-helix bundle. The subunit-subunit interface, formed by the symmetrical packing of the two alpha8 helices from the respective core domains, is stabilized through the hydrophobic effect derived from the desolvation of paired Met171, Trp164, Tyr162, Tyr167, and Tyr176 side chains. The active site is located at the domain-domain interface of each subunit. The Schiff base forming Lys53 is positioned on the cap domain while tungstate and Mg(II) are bound to the core domain. Mg(II) ligands include two oxygens of the tungstate ligand, one oxygen of the carboxylates of Asp12 and Asp186, the backbone carbonyl oxygen of Ala14, and a water that forms a hydrogen bond with the carboxylate of Asp190 and Thr187. The guanidinium group of Arg160 binds tungstate and the proposed nucleophile Asp12, which is suitably positioned for in-line attack at the tungsten atom. The side chains of the core domain residue Tyr128 and the cap domain residues Cys22 and Lys53 are located nearby. The identity of Asp12 as the active-site nucleophile was further evidenced by the observed removal of catalytic activity resulting from Asp12Ala substitution. The similarity of backbone folds observed in phosphonatase and the 2-haloacid dehalogenase of the HAD enzyme superfamily indicated common ancestry. Superposition of the two structures revealed a conserved active-site scaffold having distinct catalytic stations. Analysis of the usage of polar amino acid residues at these stations by the dehalogenases, phosphonatases, phosphatases, and phosphomutases of the HAD superfamily suggests possible ways in which the active site of an ancient enzyme ancestor might have been diversified for catalysis of C-X, P-C, and P-O bond cleavage reactions.
- Fukamizo T
- Chitinolytic enzymes: catalysis, substrate binding, and their application.
- Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2000; 1: 105-24
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After the epoch-making report on X-ray crystal structure of a lysozyme-N-acetylglucosamine trisaccharide complex in 1967, catalytic mechanisms of glycosyl hydrolases have been discussed with reference to the lysozyme mechanism. From the recent findings of chitinolytic enzymes, however, the enzymes were found to have catalytic and substrate binding mechanisms different from those of lysozyme. Based on the X-ray crystal structures of chitinases and their complexes with substrate analogues, the catalytic mechanisms were discussed considering the relative locations of catalytic residues to the bound substrate analogues. Resembling the lysozyme catalytic center, family 19 chitinases, family 46 chitosanases, and family 23 lysozymes have two carboxyl groups at the catalytic center, which are separated (> 10 +) on either side of the catalytic cleft. The catalytic reaction of the enzymes takes place through a single displacement mechanism. In family 18 chitinases, one can identify only one catalytic carboxylate as a proton donor, but not the second catalytic carboxylate whose function and location are similar to those of Asp52 in lysozyme. The catalytic reaction of family 18 chitinases is most likely to take place through a substrate-assisted mechanism. Hen egg white lysozyme has the binding cleft represented by (-4)(-3)(-2)(-1)(+1)(+2). The binding cleft of family 19 chitinases, family 46 chitosanases, and family 23 lysozymes, however, is represented by (-3)(-2)(-1)(+1)(+2)(+3). Molecular dynamics calculation suggests that family 18 chitinases have the binding cleft, (-4)(-3)(-2)(-1)(+1)(+2). The functional diversity of the chitinolytic enzymes might be related to different physiological functions of the enzymes. The enzymes are now being applied to plant protection from fungal pathogens and insect pests. Structure of the targeted chitinous component was determined by a combination of enzyme digestion and solid state CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy, and have been taken into consideration for efficient application of the enzymes. Recent understanding of the catalytic and substrate binding mechanisms would be helpful as well for arrangement of a powerful strategy in such an application.
- Gastinel LN, Cambillau C, Bourne Y
- Crystal structures of the bovine beta4galactosyltransferase catalytic domain and its complex with uridine diphosphogalactose.
- EMBO J. 1999; 18: 3546-57
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beta1,4-galactosyltransferase T1 (beta4Gal-T1, EC 22.214.171.124/38), a Golgi resident membrane-bound enzyme, transfers galactose from uridine diphosphogalactose to the terminal beta-N-acetylglucosamine residues forming the poly-N-acetyllactosamine core structures present in glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids. In mammals, beta4Gal-T1 binds to alpha-lactalbumin, a protein that is structurally homologous to lyzozyme, to produce lactose. beta4Gal-T1 is a member of a large family of homologous beta4galactosyltransferases that use different types of glycoproteins and glycolipids as substrates. Here we solved and refined the crystal structures of recombinant bovine beta4Gal-T1 to 2.4 A resolution in the presence and absence of the substrate uridine diphosphogalactose. The crystal structure of the bovine substrate-free beta4Gal-T1 catalytic domain showed a new fold consisting of a single conical domain with a large open pocket at its base. In the substrate-bound complex, the pocket encompassed residues interacting with uridine diphosphogalactose. The structure of the complex contained clear regions of electron density for the uridine diphosphate portion of the substrate, where its beta-phosphate group was stabilized by hydrogen-bonding contacts with conserved residues including the Asp252ValAsp254 motif. These results help the interpretation of engineered beta4Gal-T1 point mutations. They suggest a mechanism possibly involved in galactose transfer and enable identification of the critical amino acids involved in alpha-lactalbumin interactions.
- Zwierz K, Zalewska A, Zoch-Zwierz A
- Isoenzymes of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase.
- Acta Biochim Pol. 1999; 46: 739-51
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Biological significance, structure and posttranslational processing of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase isoenzymes are described. Clinical application of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase is also reviewed.
- Sulzenbacher G, Shareck F, Morosoli R, Dupont C, Davies GJ
- The Streptomyces lividans family 12 endoglucanase: construction of the catalytic cre, expression, and X-ray structure at 1.75 A resolution.
- Biochemistry. 1997; 36: 16032-9
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Cellulases are the glycoside hydrolases responsible for the enzymatic breakdown of the structural plant polymer cellulose. Together with xylanases they counteract the lmitless accumulation of plant biomass in nature and are of considerable fundamental and biotechnological interest. Endoglucanase CelB from Streptomyces lividans performs hydrolysis of the beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds of cellulose, with net retention of anomeric configuration. The enzyme is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 12 [Henrissat, B., and Bairoch, A. (1996) Biochem. J. 316, 695-696], which had previously eluded detailed structural analysis. A truncated, but cataytically competent form of CelB, locking the flexible linker region and cellulose-binding domain, has been constructed and overexpressed in a S. lividans expression system. The three-dimensional X-ray structure of the resulting catalytic domain, CelB2, has been solved by conventional multiple isomorphous replacement methods and refined to an R factor of 0.187 at 1.75 A resolution. The overall fold of the enzyme shows a remarkable similarity to that of family 11 xylanases, as previously predicted by hydrophobic clustering analysis [Torronen, A., Kubicek, C.P., and Henrissat, B. (1993) FEBS Lett. 321, 135-139]. The 23 kDa protein presents a jelly-roll topology, built up mainly by antiparallel beta-sheets arranged in a sandwich-like manner. A deep substrate-binding cleft runs across the surface, as has been observed in other endoglucanase structures, and is potentially able to accommodate up to five binding subsites. The likely catalytic nucleophile and Bronsted acid/base, residues Glu 120 and Glue 203, respectively, have their carboxylate groups separated by a distance of approximately 7.0 A and are located approximately 15 A from one end of the cleft, implying a -3 to +2 active site.
- Myerowitz R
- Tay-Sachs disease-causing mutations and neutral polymorphisms in the Hex A gene.
- Hum Mutat. 1997; 9: 195-208
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Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting the central nervous system. The disorder results from mutations in the gene encoding the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase A, a lysosomal enzyme composed of alpha and beta polypeptides. Seventy-eight mutations in the Hex A gene have been described and include 65 single base substitutions, one large and 10 small deletions, and two small insertions. Because these mutations cripple the catalytic activity of beta-hexosaminidase to varying degrees, Tay-Sachs disease displays clinical heterogeneity. Forty-five of the single base substitutions cause missense mutations; 39 of these are disease causing, three are benign but cause a change in phenotype, and three are neutral polymorphisms. Six nonsense mutations and 14 splice site lesions result from single base substitutions, and all but one of the splice site lesions cause a severe form of Tay-Sachs disease. Eight frameshift mutations arise from six deletion- and two insertion-type lesions. One of these insertions, consisting of four bases within exon 11, is found in 80% of the carriers of Tay-Sachs disease from the Ashkenazi Jewish population, an ethnic group that has a 10-fold higher gene frequency for a severe form of the disorder than the general population. A very large deletion, 7.5 kilobases, including all of exon 1 and portions of DNA upstream and downstream from that exon, is the major mutation found in Tay-Sachs disease carriers from the French Canadian population, a geographic isolate displaying an elevated carrier frequency. Most of the other mutations are confined to single pedigrees. Identification of these mutations has permitted more accurate carrier information, prenatal diagnosis, and disease prognosis. In conjunction with a precise tertiary structure of the enzyme, these mutations could be used to gain insight into the structure-function relationships of the lysosomal enzyme.
- Fuchs W, Navon R, Kaback MM, Kresse H
- Tay-Sachs disease: one-step assay of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase in serum with a sulphated chromogenic substrate.
- Clin Chim Acta. 1983; 133: 253-61
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A sulphated chromogenic compound, p-nitrophenyl-6-sulpho-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside, which can be hydrolysed enzymatically to p-nitrophenol and the sulphated amino sugar, was used as a substrate for the determination of activity of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase isoenzymes in human serum. The sera of six Tay-Sachs patients lacking isoenzyme A and heat-inactivated control serum exhibited 6% of the mean normal enzyme activity of 1.32 U/l (1-s range = 1.07-1.57 U/l). In 10 obligate carriers of the Tay-Sachs gene the enzyme activity was 52% (1-s range = 45-60%) of the mean normal value. Therefore, by using the sulphated chromogenic substrate Tay-Sachs disease can be diagnosed enzymatically in a simple one-step procedure, but the 2-s activity ranges of heterozygotes and normals overlap. The assay is not absolutely specific for isoenzyme A of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, because the substrate can be hydrolysed to a certain extent by beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase I.