Secondary literature sources for CPSase_L_D3
The following references were automatically generated.
- Dance I
- A molecular pathway for the egress of ammonia produced by nitrogenase.
- Sci Rep. 2013; 3: 3237-3237
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Nitrogenase converts N2 to NH3, at one face of an Fe-Mo-S cluster (FeMo-co) buried in the protein. Through exploration of cavities in the structures of nitrogenase proteins, a pathway for the egress of ammonia from its generation site to the external medium is proposed. This pathway is conserved in the three species Azotobacter vinelandii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Clostridium pasteurianum. A molecular mechanism for the translocation of NH3 by skipping through a sequence of hydrogen bonds involving eleven water molecules and surrounding aminoacids has been developed. The putative mechanism requires movement aside of some water molecules by up to ~ 1A. Consistent with this, the surrounding protein is comprised of different chains and has little secondary structure: protein fluctuations are part of the mechanism. This NH3 pathway is well separated from the water chain and embedded proton wire that have been proposed for serial supply of protons to FeMo-co. Verification procedures are suggested.
- Rothe M, Alpert C, Engst W, Musiol S, Loh G, Blaut M
- Impact of nutritional factors on the proteome of intestinal Escherichia coli: induction of OxyR-dependent proteins AhpF and Dps by a lactose-rich diet.
- Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012; 78: 3580-91
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To study the impact of nutritional factors on protein expression of intestinal bacteria, gnotobiotic mice monoassociated with Escherichia coli K-12 were fed three different diets: a diet rich in starch, a diet rich in nondigestible lactose, and a diet rich in casein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify differentially expressed proteins of bacteria recovered from small intestine and cecum. Oxidative stress response proteins such as AhpF, Dps, and Fur, all of which belong to the oxyR regulon, were upregulated in E. coli isolates from mice fed the lactose-rich diet. Luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that osmotic stress caused by carbohydrates led to the expression of ahpCF and dps, which was not observed in an E. coli DeltaoxyR mutant. Growth of ahpCF and oxyR deletion mutants was strongly impaired when nondigestible sucrose was present in the medium. The wild-type phenotype could be restored by complementation of the deletions with plasmids containing the corresponding genes and promoters. The results indicate that some OxyR-dependent proteins play a major role in the adaptation of E. coli to osmotic stress. We conclude that there is an overlap of osmotic and oxidative stress responses. Mice fed the lactose-rich diet possibly had a higher intestinal osmolality, leading to the upregulation of OxyR-dependent proteins, which enable intestinal E. coli to better cope with diet-induced osmotic stress.
- Popa E, Perera N, Kibedi-Szabo CZ, Guy-Evans H, Evans DR, Purcarea C
- The smallest active carbamoyl phosphate synthetase was identified in the human gut archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii.
- J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012; 22: 287-99
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The genome of the major intestinal archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii contains a complex gene system coding for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase) composed of both full-length and reduced-size synthetase subunits. These ammonia-metabolizing enzymes could play a key role in controlling ammonia assimilation in M. smithii, affecting the metabolism of gut bacterial microbiota, with an impact on host obesity. In this study, we isolated and characterized the small (41 kDa) CPSase homolog from M. smithii. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified in one step. Chemical cross-linking and size exclusion chromatography indicated a homodimeric/tetrameric structure, in accordance with a dimer-based CPSase activity and reaction mechanism. This small enzyme, MS-s, synthesized carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, bicarbonate, and ammonia and catalyzed the same ATP-dependent partial reactions observed for full-length CPSases. Steady-state kinetics revealed a high apparent affinity for ATP and ammonia. Sequence comparisons, molecular modeling, and kinetic studies suggest that this enzyme corresponds to one of the two synthetase domains of the full-length CPSase that catalyze the ATP-dependent phosphorylations involved in the three-step synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate. This protein represents the smallest naturally occurring active CPSase characterized thus far. The small M. smithii CPSase appears to be specialized for carbamoyl phosphate metabolism in methanogens.
- Marco-Marin C, Gil-Ortiz F, Perez-Arellano I, Cervera J, Fita I, Rubio V
- A novel two-domain architecture within the amino acid kinase enzyme family revealed by the crystal structure of Escherichia coli glutamate 5-kinase.
- J Mol Biol. 2007; 367: 1431-46
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Glutamate 5-kinase (G5K) makes the highly unstable product glutamyl 5-phosphate (G5P) in the initial, controlling step of proline/ornithine synthesis, being feedback-inhibited by proline or ornithine, and causing, when defective, clinical hyperammonaemia. We determined two crystal structures of G5K from Escherichia coli, at 2.9 A and 2.5 A resolution, complexed with glutamate and sulphate, or with G5P, sulphate and the proline analogue 5-oxoproline. E. coli G5K presents a novel tetrameric (dimer of dimers) architecture. Each subunit contains a 257 residue AAK domain, typical of acylphosphate-forming enzymes, with characteristic alpha(3)beta(8)alpha(4) sandwich topology. This domain is responsible for catalysis and proline inhibition, and has a crater on the beta sheet C-edge that hosts the active centre and bound 5-oxoproline. Each subunit contains a 93 residue C-terminal PUA domain, typical of RNA-modifying enzymes, which presents the characteristic beta(5)beta(4) sandwich fold and three alpha helices. The AAK and PUA domains of one subunit associate non-canonically in the dimer with the same domains of the other subunit, leaving a negatively charged hole between them that hosts two Mg ions in one crystal, in line with the G5K requirement for free Mg. The tetramer, formed by two dimers interacting exclusively through their AAK domains, is flat and elongated, and has in each face, pericentrically, two exposed active centres in alternate subunits. This would permit the close apposition of two active centres of bacterial glutamate-5-phosphate reductase (the next enzyme in the proline/ornithine-synthesising route), supporting the postulated channelling of G5P. The structures clarify substrate binding and catalysis, justify the high glutamate specificity, explain the effects of known point mutations, and support the binding of proline near glutamate. Proline binding may trigger the movement of a loop that encircles glutamate, and which participates in a hydrogen bond network connecting active centres, which is possibly involved in the cooperativity for glutamate.
- Kothe M, Powers-Lee SG
- Nucleotide recognition in the ATP-grasp protein carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- Protein Sci. 2004; 13: 466-75
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Synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) requires the coordinated utilization of two molecules of ATP per reaction cycle on duplicated nucleotide-binding sites (N and C). To clarify the contributions of sites N and C to the overall reaction, we carried out site-directed mutagenesis aimed at changing the substrate specificity of either of the two sites from ATP to GTP. Mutant design was based in part on an analysis of the nucleotide-binding sites of succinyl-CoA synthetases, which share membership in the ATP-grasp family with CPS and occur as GTP- and ATP-specific isoforms. We constructed and analyzed Escherichia coli CPS single mutations A144Q, D207A, D207N, S209A, I211S, P690Q, D753A, D753N, and F755A, as well as combinations thereof. All of the mutants retained ATP specificity, arguing for a lack of plasticity of the ATP sites of CPS with respect to nucleotide recognition. GTP-specific ATP-grasp proteins appear to accommodate this substrate by a displacement of the base relative to the ATP-bound state, an interaction that is precluded by the architecture of the potassium-binding loop in CPS. Analysis of the ATP-dependent kinetic parameters revealed that mutation of several residues conserved in ATP-grasp proteins and CPSs had surprisingly small effects, whereas constructs containing either A144Q or P690Q exerted the strongest effects on ATP utilization. We propose that these mutations affect proper movement of the lids covering the active sites of CPS, and interfere with access of substrate.
- Retailleau P et al.
- Interconversion of ATP binding and conformational free energies by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase: structures of ATP bound to open and closed, pre-transition-state conformations.
- J Mol Biol. 2003; 325: 39-63
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Binding ATP to tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) in a catalytically competent configuration for amino acid activation destabilizes the enzyme structure prior to forming the transition state. This conclusion follows from monitoring the titration of TrpRS with ATP by small angle solution X-ray scattering, enzyme activity, and crystal structures. ATP induces a significantly smaller radius of gyration at pH=7 with a transition midpoint at approximately 8mM. A non-reciprocal dependence of Trp and ATP dissociation constants on concentrations of the second substrate show that Trp binding enhances affinity for ATP, while the affinity for Trp falls with the square of the [ATP] over the same concentration range ( approximately 5mM) that induces the more compact conformation. Two distinct TrpRS:ATP structures have been solved, a high-affinity complex grown with 1mM ATP and a low-affinity complex grown at 10mM ATP. The former is isomorphous with unliganded TrpRS and the Trp complex from monoclinic crystals. Reacting groups of the two individually-bound substrates are separated by 6.7A. Although it lacks tryptophan, the low-affinity complex has a closed conformation similar to that observed in the presence of both ATP and Trp analogs such as indolmycin, and resembles a complex previously postulated to form in the closely-related TyrRS upon induced-fit active-site assembly, just prior to catalysis. Titration of TrpRS with ATP therefore successively produces structurally distinct high- and low-affinity ATP-bound states. The higher quality X-ray data for the closed ATP complex (2.2A) provide new structural details likely related to catalysis, including an extension of the KMSKS loop that engages the second lysine and serine residues, K195 and S196, with the alpha and gamma-phosphates; interactions of the K111 side-chain with the gamma-phosphate; and a water molecule bridging the consensus sequence residue T15 to the beta-phosphate. Induced-fit therefore strengthens active-site interactions with ATP, substantially intensifying the interaction of the KMSKS loop with the leaving PP(i) group. Formation of this conformation in the absence of a Trp analog implies that ATP is a key allosteric effector for TrpRS. The paradoxical requirement for high [ATP] implies that Gibbs binding free energy is stored in an unfavorable protein conformation and can then be recovered for useful purposes, including catalysis in the case of TrpRS.
- Pierrat OA, Raushel FM
- A functional analysis of the allosteric nucleotide monophosphate binding site of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002; 400: 34-42
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The catalytic activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) from Escherichia coli is allosterically regulated by UMP, IMP, and ornithine. Thirteen amino acids within the domain that harbors the overlapping binding sites for IMP and UMP were mutated to alanine and characterized. The four residues that interact directly with the phosphate moiety of IMP in the X-ray crystal structure (K954, T974, T977, and K993) were shown to have the greatest impact on the dissociation constants for the binding of IMP and UMP and the associated allosteric effects on the kinetic constants of CPS. Of the four residues that interact with the ribose moiety of IMP (S948, N1015, T1017, and S1026), S1026 was shown to be more important for the binding of IMP than UMP. Five residues (V994, I1001, D1025, V1028, and I1029) were mutated in the region of the allosteric domain that surrounds the hypoxanthine ring of IMP. With the exception of V994A, these mutations had a modest influence on the binding and subsequent allosteric effects by UMP and IMP.
- Mora P, Rubio V, Cervera J
- Mechanism of oligomerization of Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and modulation by the allosteric effectors. A site-directed mutagenesis study.
- FEBS Lett. 2002; 511: 6-10
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We use site-directed mutagenesis to clarify the role of effector-mediated oligomerization changes on the modulation of the activity of Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) by its allosteric activator ornithine and its inhibitor UMP. The regulatory domain mutations H975L, L990A and N992A abolished, and N987V decreased CPS oligomerization. The oligomerization domain mutation L421E prevented tetramer but not dimer formation. None of the mutations had drastic effects on enzyme activity or changed the sensitivity or apparent affinity of CPS for ornithine and UMP. Our findings exclude the involvement of oligomerization changes in the control of CPS activity, and show that CPS dimers are formed by the interactions across regulatory domains, and tetramers by the interactions of two dimers across the oligomerization domains. A mechanism for effector-mediated changes of the oligomerization state is proposed.
- Pierrat OA, Javid-Majd F, Raushel FM
- Dissection of the conduit for allosteric control of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by ornithine.
- Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002; 400: 26-33
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Ornithine is an allosteric activator of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) from Escherichia coli. Nine amino acids in the vicinity of the binding sites for ornithine and potassium were mutated to alanine, glutamine, or lysine. The residues E783, T1042, and T1043 were found to be primarily responsible for the binding of ornithine to CPS, while E783 and E892, located within the carbamate domain of the large subunit, were necessary for the transmission of the allosteric signals to the active site. In the K loop for the binding of the monovalent cation potassium, only E761 was crucial for the exhibition of the allosteric effects of ornithine, UMP, and IMP. The mutations H781K and S792K altered significantly the allosteric properties of ornithine, UMP, and IMP, possibly by modifying the conformation of the K-loop structure. Overall, these mutations affected the allosteric properties of ornithine and IMP more than those of UMP. The mutants S792K and D1041A altered the allosteric regulation by ornithine and IMP in a similar way, suggesting common features in the activation mechanism exhibited by these two effectors.
- Goto M, Nakajima Y, Hirotsu K
- Crystal structure of argininosuccinate synthetase from Thermus thermophilus HB8. Structural basis for the catalytic action.
- J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 15890-6
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Argininosuccinate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of a citrulline with an aspartate to give argininosuccinate. The three-dimensional structures of the enzyme from Thermus thermophilus HB8 in its free form, complexed with intact ATP, and complexed with an ATP analogue (adenylyl imidodiphosphate) and substrate analogues (arginine and succinate) have been determined at 2.3-, 2.3-, and 1.95-A resolution, respectively. The structure is essentially the same as that of the Escherichia coli argininosuccinate synthetase. The small domain has the same fold as that of a new family of "N-type" ATP pyrophosphatases with the P-loop specific for the pyrophosphate of ATP. However, the enzyme shows the P-loop specific for the gamma-phosphate of ATP. The structure of the complex form is quite similar to that of the native one, indicating that no conformational change occurs upon the binding of ATP and the substrate analogues. ATP and the substrate analogues are bound to the active site with their reaction sites close to one another and located in a geometrical orientation favorable to the catalytic action. The reaction mechanism so far proposed seems to be consistent with the locations of ATP and the substrate analogues. The reaction may proceed without the large conformational change of the enzyme proposed for the catalytic process.
- Kashlan OB, Scott CP, Lear JD, Cooperman BS
- A comprehensive model for the allosteric regulation of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase. Functional consequences of ATP- and dATP-induced oligomerization of the large subunit.
- Biochemistry. 2002; 41: 462-74
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Reduction of NDPs by murine ribonucleotide reductase (mRR) requires catalytic (mR1) and free radical-containing (mR2) subunits and is regulated by nucleoside triphosphate allosteric effectors. Here we present a new, comprehensive, and quantitative model for allosteric control of mRR enzymatic activity based on molecular mass, ligand binding, and enzyme activity studies. In this model, nucleotide binding to the specificity site (s-site) drives formation of an active R1(2)R2(2) dimer, ATP or dATP binding to the adenine-specific site (a-site) results in formation of an inactive tetramer, and ATP binding to the newly described hexamerization site (h-site) drives formation of active R1(6)R2(6) hexamer. In contrast, an earlier phenomenological model [Thelander, L., and Reichard, P. (1979) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 71-98] (the "RT" model) ignores aggregation state changes and mistakenly rationalizes ATP activation versus dATP inhibition as reflecting different functional consequences of ATP versus dATP binding to the a-site. Our results suggest that the R1(6)R2(6) heterohexamer is the major active form of the enzyme in mammalian cells, and that the ATP concentration is the primary modulator of enzyme activity, coupling the rate of DNA biosynthesis with the energetic state of the cell. Using the crystal structure of the Escherichia coliR1 hexamer as a model for the mR1 hexamer, a scheme is presented that rationalizes the slow isomerization of the tetramer form and suggests an explanation for the low enzymatic activity of tetramers complexed with R2. The similar specific activities of R1(2)R2(2) and R1(6)R2(6) are inconsistent with a proposed model for R2(2) docking with R1(2) [Uhlin, U., and Eklund, H. (1994) Nature 370, 533-539], and an alternative is suggested.
- Kim J, Raushel FM
- Allosteric control of the oligomerization of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli.
- Biochemistry. 2001; 40: 11030-6
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Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) from Escherichia coli is allosterically regulated by the metabolites ornithine, IMP, and UMP. Ornithine and IMP function as activators, whereas UMP is an inhibitor. CPS undergoes changes in the state of oligomerization that are dependent on the protein concentration and the binding of allosteric effectors. Ornithine and IMP promote the formation of an (alphabeta)4 tetramer while UMP favors the formation of an (alphabeta)2 dimer. The three-dimensional structure of the (alphabeta)4 tetramer has unveiled two regions of molecular contact between symmetry-related monomeric units. Identical residues within two pairs of allosteric domains interact with one another as do twin pairs of oligomerization domains. There are thus two possible structures for an (alphabeta)2 dimer: an elongated dimer formed at the interface of two allosteric domains and a more compact dimer formed at the interface between two oligomerization domains. Mutations at the two interfacial sites of oligomerization were constructed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism for assembly of the (alphabeta)4 tetramer through disruption of the molecular binding interactions between monomeric units. When Leu-421 (located in the oligomerization domain) was mutated to a glutamate residue, CPS formed an (alphabeta)2 dimer in the presence of ornithine, UMP, or IMP. In contrast, when Asn-987 (located in the allosteric binding domain) was mutated to an aspartate, an (alphabeta) monomer was formed regardless of the presence of any allosteric effectors. These results are consistent with a model for the structure of the (alphabeta)2 dimer that is formed through molecular contact between two pairs of allosteric domains. Apparently, the second interaction, between pairs of oligomerization domains, does not form until after the interaction between pairs of allosteric domains is formed. The binding of UMP to the allosteric domain inhibits the dimerization of the (alphabeta)2 dimer, whereas the binding of either IMP or ornithine to this same domain promotes the dimerization of the (alphabeta)2 dimer. In the oligomerization process, ornithine and IMP must exert a conformational alteration on the oligomerization domain, which is approximately 45 A away from their site of binding within the allosteric domain. No significant dependence of the specific catalytic activity on the protein concentration could be detected, and thus the effects induced by the allosteric ligands on the catalytic activity and the state of oligomerization are unlinked from one another.
- Eriksen TA, Kadziola A, Bentsen AK, Harlow KW, Larsen S
- Structural basis for the function of Bacillus subtilis phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase.
- Nat Struct Biol. 2000; 7: 303-8
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Here we report the first three-dimensional structure of a phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase. PRPP is an essential intermediate in several biosynthetic pathways. Structures of the Bacillus subtilis PRPP synthetase in complex with analogs of the activator phosphate and the allosteric inhibitor ADP show that the functional form of the enzyme is a hexamer. The individual subunits fold into two domains, both of which resemble the type I phosphoribosyltransfereases. The active site is located between the two domains and includes residues from two subunits. Phosphate and ADP bind to the same regulatory site consisting of residues from three subunits of the hexamer. In addition to identifying residues important for binding substrates and effectors, the structures suggest a novel mode of allosteric regulation.
- Morais MC, Zhang W, Baker AS, Zhang G, Dunaway-Mariano D, Allen KN
- The crystal structure of bacillus cereus phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase: insight into catalysis of phosphorus bond cleavage and catalytic diversification within the HAD enzyme superfamily.
- Biochemistry. 2000; 39: 10385-96
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Phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase (phosphonatase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphonoacetaldehyde to acetaldehyde and phosphate using Mg(II) as cofactor. The reaction proceeds via a novel bicovalent catalytic mechanism in which an active-site nucleophile abstracts the phosphoryl group from the Schiff-base intermediate formed from Lys53 and phosphonoacetaldehyde. In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the Bacillus cereus phosphonatase homodimer complexed with the phosphate (product) analogue tungstate (K(i) = 50 microM) and the Mg(II) cofactor was determined to 3.0 A resolution with an R(cryst) = 0.248 and R(free) = 0.284. Each monomer is made up of an alpha/beta core domain consisting of a centrally located six-stranded parallel beta-sheet surrounded by six alpha-helices. Two flexible, solvated linkers connect to a small cap domain (residues 21-99) that consists of an antiparallel, five-helix bundle. The subunit-subunit interface, formed by the symmetrical packing of the two alpha8 helices from the respective core domains, is stabilized through the hydrophobic effect derived from the desolvation of paired Met171, Trp164, Tyr162, Tyr167, and Tyr176 side chains. The active site is located at the domain-domain interface of each subunit. The Schiff base forming Lys53 is positioned on the cap domain while tungstate and Mg(II) are bound to the core domain. Mg(II) ligands include two oxygens of the tungstate ligand, one oxygen of the carboxylates of Asp12 and Asp186, the backbone carbonyl oxygen of Ala14, and a water that forms a hydrogen bond with the carboxylate of Asp190 and Thr187. The guanidinium group of Arg160 binds tungstate and the proposed nucleophile Asp12, which is suitably positioned for in-line attack at the tungsten atom. The side chains of the core domain residue Tyr128 and the cap domain residues Cys22 and Lys53 are located nearby. The identity of Asp12 as the active-site nucleophile was further evidenced by the observed removal of catalytic activity resulting from Asp12Ala substitution. The similarity of backbone folds observed in phosphonatase and the 2-haloacid dehalogenase of the HAD enzyme superfamily indicated common ancestry. Superposition of the two structures revealed a conserved active-site scaffold having distinct catalytic stations. Analysis of the usage of polar amino acid residues at these stations by the dehalogenases, phosphonatases, phosphatases, and phosphomutases of the HAD superfamily suggests possible ways in which the active site of an ancient enzyme ancestor might have been diversified for catalysis of C-X, P-C, and P-O bond cleavage reactions.
- Miles BW, Raushel FM
- Synchronization of the three reaction centers within carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- Biochemistry. 2000; 39: 5051-6
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Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from E. coli catalyzes the synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate through a series of four reactions occurring at three active sites connected by a molecular tunnel of 100 A. To understand the mechanism for coordination and synchronization among the active sites, the pre-steady-state time courses for the formation of phosphate, ADP, glutamate, and carbamoyl phosphate were determined. When bicarbonate and ATP were rapidly mixed with CPS, a stoichiometric burst of acid-labile phosphate and ADP was observed with a formation rate constant of 1100 min(-)(1). The burst phase was followed by a linear steady-state phase with a rate constant of 12 min(-)(1). When glutamine or ammonia was added to the initial reaction mixture, the magnitude and the rate of formation of the burst phase for either phosphate or ADP were unchanged, but the rate constant for the linear steady-state phase increased to an average value of 78 min(-)(1). These results demonstrate that the initial phosphorylation of bicarbonate is independent of the binding or hydrolysis of glutamine. The pre-steady-state time course for the hydrolysis of glutamine in the absence of ATP exhibited a burst of glutamate formation with a rate constant of 4 min(-)(1) when the reaction was quenched with base. In the presence of ATP and bicarbonate, the rate constant for the formation of the burst of glutamate was 1100 min(-)(1). The hydrolysis of ATP thus enhanced the hydrolysis of glutamine by a factor of 275, but there was no effect by glutamine on the initial phosphorylation of bicarbonate. The pre-steady-state time course for the formation of carbamoyl phosphate was linear with an overall rate constant of 72 min(-)(1). The absence of an initial burst of carbamoyl phosphate formation eliminates product release as a rate-determining step for CPS. Overall, these results have been interpreted to be consistent with a mechanism whereby the phosphorylation of bicarbonate serves as the initial trigger for the rest of the reaction cascade. The formation of the carboxy phosphate intermediate within the large subunit must induce a conformational change to the active site of the small subunit that enhances the hydrolysis of glutamine. Thus, ammonia is not released into the molecular tunnel until the activated bicarbonate is ready to form carbamate. The rate-limiting step for the steady-state assembly of carbamoyl phosphate is either the formation, migration, or phosphorylation of the carbamate intermediate.
- Ramon-Maiques S, Marina A, Uriarte M, Fita I, Rubio V
- The 1.5 A resolution crystal structure of the carbamate kinase-like carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon pyrococcus furiosus, bound to ADP, confirms that this thermostable enzyme is a carbamate kinase, and provides insight into substrate binding and stability in carbamate kinases.
- J Mol Biol. 2000; 299: 463-76
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Carbamoyl phosphate (CP), an essential precursor of arginine and the pyrimidine bases, is synthesized by CP synthetase (CPS) in three steps. The last step, the phosphorylation of carbamate, is also catalyzed by carbamate kinase (CK), an enzyme used by microorganisms to produce ATP from ADP and CP. Although the recently determined structures of CPS and CK show no obvious mutual similarities, a CK-like CPS reported in hyperthermophilic archaea was postulated to be a missing link in the evolution of CP biosynthesis. The 1.5 A resolution structure of this enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus shows both a subunit topology and a homodimeric molecular organization, with a 16-stranded open beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helices, similar to those in CK. However, the pyrococcal enzyme exhibits many solvent-accessible ion-pairs, an extensive, strongly hydrophobic, intersubunit surface, and presents a bound ADP molecule, which does not dissociate at 22 degrees C from the enzyme. The ADP nucleotide is sequestered in a ridge formed over the C-edge of the core sheet, at the bottom of a large cavity, with the purine ring enclosed in a pocket specific for adenine. Overall, the enzyme structure is ill-suited for catalyzing the characteristic three-step reaction of CPS and supports the view that the CK-like CPS is in fact a highly thermostable and very slow (at 37 degrees C) CK that, in the extreme environment of P. furiosus, may have the new function of making, rather than using, CP. The thermostability of the enzyme may result from the extension of the hydrophobic intersubunit contacts and from the large number of exposed ion-pairs, some of which form ion-pair networks across several secondary structure elements in each enzyme subunit. The structure provides the first information on substrate binding and catalysis in CKs, and suggests that the slow rate at 37 degrees C is possibly a consequence of slow product dissociation.
- Purcarea C, Evans DR, Herve G
- Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi.
- J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 6122-9
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The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.
- Mora P, Rubio V, Fresquet V, Cervera J
- Localization of the site for the nucleotide effectors of Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase using site-directed mutagenesis.
- FEBS Lett. 1999; 446: 133-6
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Replacement by alanine of Ser-948, Thr-974 and Lys-954 of Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) shows that these residues are involved in binding the allosteric inhibitor UMP and the activator IMP. The mutant CPSs are active in vivo and in vitro and exhibit normal activation by ornithine, but the modulation by both UMP and IMP is either lost or diminished. The results demonstrate that the sites for UMP and IMP overlap and that the activator ornithine binds elsewhere. Since the mutated residues were found in the crystal structure of CPS near a bound phosphate, Ser-948, Thr-974 and Lys-954 bind the phosphate moiety of UMP and IMP.
- Braxton BL, Mullins LS, Raushel FM, Reinhart GD
- Allosteric dominance in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- Biochemistry. 1999; 38: 1394-401
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A linked-function analysis of the allosteric responsiveness of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) from E. coli was performed by following the ATP synthesis reaction at low carbamoyl phosphate concentration. All three allosteric ligands, ornithine, UMP, and IMP, act by modifying the affinity of CPS for the substrate MgADP. Individually ornithine strongly promotes, and UMP strongly antagonizes, the binding of MgADP. IMP causes only a slight inhibition at 25 degreesC. When both ornithine and UMP were varied, models which presume a mutually exclusive binding relationship between these ligands do not fit the data as well as does one which allows both ligands (and substrate) to bind simultaneously. The same result was obtained with ornithine and IMP. By contrast, the actions of UMP and IMP together must be explained with a competitive model, consistent with previous reports that UMP and IMP bind to the same site. When ornithine is bound to the enzyme, its activation dominates the effects when either UMP or IMP is also bound. The relationship of this observation to the structure of CPS is discussed.
- Thoden JB, Raushel FM, Wesenberg G, Holden HM
- The binding of inosine monophosphate to Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 22502-7
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Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) from Escherichia coli catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate, which is subsequently employed in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. The reaction mechanism is known to proceed through at least three highly reactive intermediates: ammonia, carboxyphosphate, and carbamate. In keeping with the fact that the product of CPS is utilized in two competing metabolic pathways, the enzyme is highly regulated by a variety of effector molecules including potassium and ornithine, which function as activators, and UMP, which acts as an inhibitor. IMP is also known to bind to CPS but the actual effect of this ligand on the activity of the enzyme is dependent upon both temperature and assay conditions. Here we describe the three-dimensional architecture of CPS with bound IMP determined and refined to 2.1 A resolution. The nucleotide is situated at the C-terminal portion of a five-stranded parallel beta-sheet in the allosteric domain formed by Ser(937) to Lys(1073). Those amino acid side chains responsible for anchoring the nucleotide to the polypeptide chain include Lys(954), Thr(974), Thr(977), Lys(993), Asn(1015), and Thr(1017). A series of hydrogen bonds connect the IMP-binding pocket to the active site of the large subunit known to function in the phosphorylation of the unstable intermediate, carbamate. This structural analysis reveals, for the first time, the detailed manner in which CPS accommodates nucleotide monophosphate effector molecules within the allosteric domain.
- Rizzi M, Bolognesi M, Coda A
- A novel deamido-NAD+-binding site revealed by the trapped NAD-adenylate intermediate in the NAD+ synthetase structure.
- Structure. 1998; 6: 1129-40
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BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) has a central role in life processes. The ubiquitous enzyme NAD+ synthetase catalyzes a key step in NAD+ biosynthesis, transforming deamido-NAD+ into NAD+ by a two-step reaction. NAD+ synthetase belongs to the amidotransferase family and has been recognized as a member of the family of N-type ATP pyrophosphatases. In order to investigate the mechanism of the reaction carried out by NAD+ synthetase we have determined a high-resolution three-dimensional structure of the Bacillus subtilis homodimeric NAD+ synthetase in complex with the trapped reaction intermediate NAD-adenylate. RESULTS: Two NAD-adenylate molecules and two pyrophosphate (PPi) molecules are observed in the 1.3 A resolution structure of the NAD+ synthetase-NAD-adenylate complex. Structural studies on the NAD+ synthetase-NAD-adenylate adduct and on the cation-binding sites reveal a new deamido-NAD+-binding site located at the subunit interface, locate a binuclear magnesium cluster at the ATP-binding site and, identify two monovalent cation sites, one of which may represent an ammonium-binding site. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that two different catalytic strategies have been adopted by NAD+ synthetase in the two different steps of the reaction. During the adenylation step, no protein residues seem to be located properly to directly participate in catalysis, which is likely to be carried out with the fundamental assistance of an electron-withdrawing trimetallic constellation present in the active site. A different behavior is observed for the second step, in which an ammonium ion is the binding species. In this step, Asp173 is a key residue in both deprotonation of the primarily bound ammonium ion, and stabilization of the tetrahedral transition-state intermediate. Moreover, the structural data suggest that product release can take place only after all substrates are bound to the enzyme, and product release is ultimately controlled by the conformation adopted by two mobile loops.
- Miles BW, Banzon JA, Raushel FM
- Regulatory control of the amidotransferase domain of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- Biochemistry. 1998; 37: 16773-9
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Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine by the nucleophilic attack of an active site cysteine residue through a mechanism that requires the formation of a gamma-glutamyl thioester intermediate. The steady-state mole fraction of the thioester intermediate was determined to be 0.23 in the presence and absence of ATP and bicarbonate. The kinetics of formation and hydrolysis of the gamma-glutamyl thioester intermediate during CPS catalyzed hydrolysis of glutamine were determined. When ATP and bicarbonate are added to CPS and glutamine, the kcat for glutamine hydrolysis increases from 0.17 to 150 min-1. The observed rate constant for thioester intermediate formation increases from 18 to 580 min-1, and the microscopic rate constant for hydrolysis of the intermediate increases from 0.15 to 460 min-1. These results demonstrate the kinetic competence of the thioester intermediate during glutamine hydrolysis. The rate-determining step changes from the hydrolysis of the intermediate when ATP and bicarbonate are absent to the formation of the intermediate upon the addition of ATP and bicarbonate. The 3 order of magnitude increase in the rate of glutamine hydrolysis upon the addition of ATP and bicarbonate is indicative of the allosteric communication between two of the three reaction centers of CPS. These sites are physically separated by approximately 45 A.
- Willemoes M, Hove-Jensen B
- Binding of divalent magnesium by Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase.
- Biochemistry. 1997; 36: 5078-83
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The mechanism of binding of the substrates Mg x ATP and ribose 5-phosphate as well as Mg2+ to the enzyme 5-phospho-D-ribosyl (alpha-1-diphosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli has been analyzed. By use of the competive inhibitors of ATP and ribose 5-phosphate binding, alpha,beta-methylene ATP and (+)-1-alpha,2-alpha,3-alpha-trihydroxy-4-beta-cyclopentanemethanol 5-phosphate, respectively, the binding of Mg2+ and the substrates were determined to occur via a steady state ordered mechanism in which Mg2+ binds to the enzyme first and ribose 5-phosphate binds last. Mg2+ binding to the enzyme prior to the binding of substrates and products indicated a role of Mg2+ in preparing the active site of phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase for binding of the highly phosphorylated ligands Mg x ATP and phosphoribosyl diphosphate, as evaluated by analysis of the effects of the inhibitors adenosine and ribose 1,5-bisphosphate. Calcium ions, which inhibit the enzyme even in the presence of high concentrations of Mg2+, appeared to compete with free Mg2+ for binding to its activator site on the enzyme. Analysis of the inhibition of Mg2+ binding by Mg x ADP indicated that Mg x ADP binding to the allosteric site may occur in competition with enzyme bound Mg2+. Ligand binding studies showed that 1 mol of Mg x ATP was bound per mol of phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase subunit, which indicated that the allosteric sites of the multimeric enzyme were not made up by inactive catalytic sites.
- Zheng W, Lim AL, Powers-Lee SG
- Identification of critical amino acid residues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase: definition of the ATP site involved in carboxy-phosphate formation.
- Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997; 1341: 35-48
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Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetases (CPSases) utilize two molecules of ATP at two homologous domains, B and C, with ATP(B) used to form the enzyme-bound intermediate carboxy-phosphate and ATP(C) used to phosphorylate the carbamate intermediate. To further define the role of one CPSase peptide suggested by affinity labeling studies to be near the ATP(B) site, we have carried out site-directed mutagenic analysis of peptide 234-242 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae arginine-specific CPSase. Mutants E234A, E234D, E236A, E236D and E238A were unable to complement the CPSase-deficient yeast strain LPL26 whereas mutants Y237A, E238D, R241K, R241E and R241P supported LPL26 growth as well as wild-type CPSase. Kinetic analysis of E234A and Y237A indicated impaired utilization of ATP(B) but not of ATP(C). D242A, a temperature-sensitive mutant, retained no detectable activity when assayed in vitro. These findings, together with the affinity labeling data and primary sequence analysis, strongly suggest that the yeast CPSase peptide 234-242 is located at the ATP(B) site and that some of its residues are important for functioning of the enzyme. D242 appears to occupy a critical structural position and E234, E236 and E238 appear to be critical for function, with the spatial arrangement of the carboxyl side chain also critical for E234 and E236.
- Stapleton MA et al.
- Role of conserved residues within the carboxy phosphate domain of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- Biochemistry. 1996; 35: 14352-61
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Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine, bicarbonate, and 2 mol of MgATP. The heterodimeric protein is composed of a small amidotransferase subunit and a larger synthetase subunit. The synthetase subunit contains a large tandem repeat for each of the nucleotides used in the overall synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate. A working model for the three-dimensional fold of the carboxy phosphate domain of CPS was constructed on the basis of amino acid sequence alignments and the X-ray crystal structure coordinates for biotin carboxylase and D-alanine:D-alanine ligase. This model was used to select ten residues within the carboxy phosphate domain of CPS for modification and subsequent characterization of the kinetic constants for the mutant proteins. Residues R82, R129, R169, D207, E215, N283, and Q285 were changed to alanine residues; residues E299 and R303 to glutamine; and residue N301 to aspartate. No significant changes in the catalytic constants were observed upon mutation of either R82 or D207, and thus these residues appear to be nonessential for binding and/or catalytic activity. The Michaelis constant for ATP was most affected by modification of residues R129, R169, Q285, and N301. The binding of bicarbonate was most affected by the mutagenesis of residues E215, E299, N301, and R303. The mutation of residues E215, N283, E299, N301, and R303 resulted in proteins which were unable to synthesize carbamoyl phosphate at a significant rate. All of the mutations, with the exception of the N301D mutant, primarily affected the enzyme by altering the step for the phosphorylation of bicarbonate. However, mutation of N301 to aspartic acid also disrupted the catalytic step involved in the phosphorylation of carbamate. These results are consistent with a role for the N-terminal half of the synthetase subunit of CPS that is primarily directed at the initial phosphorylation of bicarbonate by the first ATP utilized in the overall synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate. The active site structure appears to be very similar to the ones previously determined for D-alanine:D-alanine ligase and biotin carboxylase.
- Lim AL, Powers-Lee SG
- Requirement for the carboxyl-terminal domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase.
- J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 11400-9
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The arginine-specific carbamoyl phosphate synthetase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a heterodimeric enzyme, with a 45-kDa CPA1 subunit binding and cleaving glutamine, and a 124-kDa CPA2 subunit accepting the ammonia moiety cleaved from glutamine, binding all of the remaining substrates and carrying out all of the other catalytic events. CPA2 is composed of two apparently duplicated amino acid sequences involved in binding the two ATP molecules needed for carbamoyl phosphate synthesis and a carboxyl-terminal domain which appears to be less tightly folded than the remainder of the protein. Using deletion mutagenesis, we have established that essentially all of the carboxyl-terminal domain of CPA2 is required for catalytic function and that even small truncations lead to significant changes in the CPA2 conformation. In addition, we have demonstrated that the C-terminal region of CPA2 can be expressed as an autonomously folded unit which is stabilized by specific interactions with the remainder of CPA2. We also made the unexpected finding that, even when ammonia is used as the substrate and there is no catalytic role for CPA1, interaction with CPA1 led to an increase in the Vmax of CPA2 in crude extracts.
- Matsuda K, Mizuguchi K, Nishioka T, Kato H, Go N, Oda J
- Crystal structure of glutathione synthetase at optimal pH: domain architecture and structural similarity with other proteins.
- Protein Eng. 1996; 9: 1083-92
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The crystal structure of Escherichia coli B glutathione synthetase (GSHase) has been determined at the optimal catalytic condition pH 7.5. The most significant structural difference from the structure at pH 6.0 is the movement of the central domain towards the N-terminal domain almost as a rigid body. As a result of this movement, new interdomain and intersubunit polar interactions are formed which stabilize the dimeric structure further. The structure of GSHase at optimal pH was compared with 294 other known protein structures in terms of the spatial arrangements of secondary structural elements. Three enzymes (D-alanine: D-alanine ligase, succinyl-CoA synthetase and the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase) were found to have structures similar to the ATP-binding site of GSHase, which extends across two domains. The ATP-binding sites in these four enzymes are composed of two antiparallel beta-sheets and are different from the classic mononucleotide-binding fold. Except for these proteins, no significant structural similarity was detected between GSHase and the other ATP-binding proteins. A structural motif in the N-terminal domain of GSHase has been found to be similar to the NAD-binding fold. This structural motif is shared by a number of other proteins that bind various negatively charged molecules.
- Guy HI, Evans DR
- Substructure of the amidotransferase domain of mammalian carbamyl phosphate synthetase.
- J Biol Chem. 1995; 270: 2190-7
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The amidotransferase or glutaminase (GLNase) domain of mammalian carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase), part of the 243-kDa CAD polypeptide, consists of a carboxyl half that is homologous to all trpG-type amidotransferases and an amino half unique to the carbamyl phosphate synthetases. The two halves of the mammalian GLNase domain have been cloned separately, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. The 21-kDa carboxyl half, the catalytic subdomain, is extraordinarily active. The kcat is 347-fold higher and the KGlnm is 40-fold lower than the complete GLNase domain. Unlike the GLNase domain, the catalytic subdomain does not form a stable hybrid complex with the E. coli CPSase synthetase subunit. Nevertheless, titration of the synthetase subunit with the catalytic subdomain partially restores glutamine-dependent CPSase activity. The 19-kDa amino half, the interaction subdomain, binds tightly to the E. coli CPSase large subunit. Thus, the GLNase domain consists of two subdomains which can autonomously fold and function. The catalytic subdomain weakly interacts with the synthetase domain and has all of the residues necessary for catalysis. The interaction subdomain is required for complex formation and also attenuates the intrinsically high activity of the catalytic subdomain and, thus, may be a key element of the interdomain functional linkage.
- Alonso E, Rubio V
- Affinity cleavage of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I localizes regions of the enzyme interacting with the molecule of ATP that phosphorylates carbamate.
- Eur J Biochem. 1995; 229: 377-84
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Two ATP molecules are used in the reaction catalyzed by carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I. One molecule (ATPA) phosphorylates HCO3- and the other (ATPB) phosphorylates carbamate. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I is a 160-kDa polypeptide consisting of a 40-kDa N-terminal moiety and a 120-kDa C-terminal moiety, the latter being composed of two similar halves of molecular mass 60 kDa. We showed [Alonso, E., Cervera, J., Garcia-Espana, A., Bendala, E. & Rubio, V. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 4524-4532] that Fe.ATP bound at the site for ATPB catalyzes the oxidative inactivation of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I in a model oxidative system consisting of Fe3+, ascorbate, and O2, and we detected ATP-promoted oxidative cleavage of the enzyme. We now provide further evidence indicating that this cleavage is catalyzed by bound Fe.ATPB, and we demonstrate that the enzyme is cleaved at seven points, which we identify as residues 1002, 1064, 1083, 1128, 1200, 1242, and 1270. All these cleavage points are confined within and distributed throughout the more N-terminal 40-kDa region of the C-terminus of the 120-kDa moiety. Thus, this 40-kDa region contains the ATPB site, is folded as a globular domain with the polypeptide recurring several times towards the nucleotide, and appears to be a modular unit equivalent to carbamate kinase, with full responsibility for ATPB binding and carbamate phosphorylation. The present results and our previous demonstration [Rodriguez-Aparicio, L., Guadalajara, A.M. & Rubio, V. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 3070-3074] of the binding of N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the C-terminal 20-kDa region, strongly support the idea that each homologous half of the 120-kDa moiety of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I is composed of a 40-kDa ATP-binding domain and a 20-kDa domain that, in the carboxyl half, is the regulatory domain.
- Mareya SM, Raushel FM
- Mapping the structural domains of E. coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase using limited proteolysis.
- Bioorg Med Chem. 1995; 3: 525-32
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The structural and functional domains of Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) have been identified by limited proteolysis. Incubation of CPS with several proteases, including trypsin, chymotrypsin, subtilisin and endoproteinase Asp-N, under native conditions, causes a time-dependent loss of enzymatic activity and the generation of a common fragmentation pattern. Amino-terminal sequencing studies demonstrated that the initial cleavage event by trypsin occurred at the carboxy-terminal end of the large subunit. The ultimate fragments produced in most of the proteolysis studies, 35- and 45-kDa peptides, were derived from areas corresponding to the putative ATP binding regions. Substrate protection studies showed that the addition of ligands did not affect the final fragmentation pattern of the protein. However, ornithine and UMP were found to significantly reduce the rate of inactivation by inhibition of proteolytic cleavage. MgATP and IMP provided modest protection whereas bicarbonate and glutamine showed no overall effect on proteolysis. Limited proteolysis by endoproteinase Asp-N resulted in the production of a fragment (or multiple fragments) which contained enzymatic activity but had lost all regulation by the allosteric ligands, UMP and ornithine. The small subunit has been shown to be protected from proteolysis by the large subunit. Proteolysis of the isolated small subunit resulted in the generation of a stable 31-kDa species which contained 10% of the original glutaminase activity. These studies demonstrate that a portion of the C-terminal end of the large subunit can be excised without entirely destroying the ability of CPS to catalyze the formation of carbamoyl phosphate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Czerwinski RM, Mareya SM, Raushel FM
- Regulatory changes in the control of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase induced by truncation and mutagenesis of the allosteric binding domain.
- Biochemistry. 1995; 34: 13920-7
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Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli catalyzes the synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from bicarbonate, ammonia, and two molecules of MgATP. The enzyme is composed of two nonidentical subunits. The small subunit catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia. The large subunit catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate and has the binding sites for bicarbonate, ammonia, MgATP, and the allosteric ligands IMP, UMP, and ornithine. The allosteric ligands are believed to bind to the extreme C-terminal portion of the large subunit. Truncation mutants were constructed to investigate the allosteric binding domain. Stop codons were introduced at various locations along the carB gene in order to delete amino acids from the carboxy-terminal end of the large subunit. Removal of 14-119 amino acids from the carboxy-terminal end of the large subunit resulted in significant decreases in all of the enzymatic activities catalyzed by the enzyme. A 40-fold decrease in the glutamine-dependent ATPase activity was observed for the delta 14 truncation. Similar losses in activity were also observed for the delta 50, delta 65, delta 91, and delta 119 mutant proteins. However, formation of carbamoyl phosphate was detected even after the deletion of 119 amino acids from the carboxy-terminal end of the large subunit. No allosteric effects were observed for UMP with either the delta 91 or delta 119 truncation mutants, but alterations in the catalytic activity were observed in the presence of ornithine even after the removal of the last 119 amino acids from the large subunit of CPS. Six conserved amino acids within the allosteric domain were mutated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
- Liu X, Guy HI, Evans DR
- Identification of the regulatory domain of the mammalian multifunctional protein CAD by the construction of an Escherichia coli hamster hybrid carbamyl-phosphate synthetase.
- J Biol Chem. 1994; 269: 27747-55
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Carbamyl-phosphate synthetases from different organisms have similar catalytic mechanisms and amino acid sequences, but their structural organization, sub-unit structure, and mode of regulation can be very different. Escherichia coli carbamyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase), a monofunctional protein consisting of amido-transferase and synthetase subunits, is allosterically inhibited by UMP and activated by NH3, IMP, and ornithine. In contrast, mammalian CPSase II, part of the large multifunctional polypeptide, CAD, is inhibited by UTP and activated by 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). Previous photoaffinity labeling studies of E. coli CPSase showed that allosteric effectors bind near the carboxyl-terminal end of the synthetase subunit. This region of the molecule may be a regulatory subdomain common to all CPSases. An E. coli mammalian hybrid CPSase gene has been constructed and expressed in E. coli. The hybrid consists of the E. coli CPSase synthetase catalytic subdomains, residues 1-900 of the 1073 residue polypeptide, fused to the amino-terminal end of the putative 190-residue regulatory subdomain of the mammalian protein. The hybrid CPSase had normal activity, but was no longer regulated by the prokaryotic allosteric effectors. Instead, the glutamine- and ammonia-dependent CPSase activities and both ATP-dependent partial reactions were activated by PRPP and inhibited by UTP, indicating that the binding sites of both of these ligands are located in a regulatory region at the carboxyl-terminal end of the CPSase domain of CAD. The apparent ligand dissociation constants and extent of inhibition by UTP are similar in the hybrid and the wild type mammalian protein, but PRPP binds 4-fold more weakly to the hybrid. The allosteric ligands affected the steady state kinetic parameters of the hybrid differently, suggesting that while the linkage between the catalytic and regulatory subdomains has been preserved, there may be qualitative differences in interdomain signal transmission. Nevertheless, switching prokaryotic and eukaryotic allosteric controls argues for remarkable conservation of structure and regulatory mechanisms in this family of proteins.
- Schofield JP
- Molecular studies on an ancient gene encoding for carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase.
- Clin Sci (Lond). 1993; 84: 119-28
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1. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (EC 22.214.171.124.) catalyses the synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate, the immediate precursor of arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, and is highly conserved throughout evolution. The large subunit of all carbamoyl-phosphate synthetases sequenced to date comprises two highly homologous halves, the product of a proposed ancestral gene duplication. The sequences of the enzymes of Escherichia coli, Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rat and Syrian hamster all have duplications, suggesting that this event occurred in the progenote predating the separation of the major phylae. Until now, only limited data on carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase were available for the primitive eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and for the Archaea Methanosarcina barkeri MS. The DNA sequence of the D. discoideum carbamoyl-phosphate gene and additional sequence for the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase gene of M. barkeri MS have been determined, and a duplicated structure for both is clearly demonstrated. 2. Genes with ancient duplications provide unique information on their evolution. A study of the intron/exon organization of the rat carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I gene and the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase hamster II gene in the CAD multi-gene complex shows that at least some of their introns are very old. Evidence is provided that some introns must have been present in the ancestral precursor before its duplication. 3. The human carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I gene has been isolated and characterized. A human liver cDNA library was constructed and probed for carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I. A human genomic DNA cosmid library was also probed for the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I gene. The cDNA sequence of the human carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I gene has been determined, and work has been initiated to confirm that at least part of this gene is contained within two cosmids spanning 46kb. This will enable future studies to be made on mutations in this gene in the rare autosomal recessive deficiency of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I.
- Yamaguchi H et al.
- Three-dimensional structure of the glutathione synthetase from Escherichia coli B at 2.0 A resolution.
- J Mol Biol. 1993; 229: 1083-100
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Glutathione synthetase (gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine: glycine ligase (ADP-forming) EC 126.96.36.199: GSHase) catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine and Gly in the presence of ATP. The enzyme from Escherichia coli is a tetramer with four identical subunits of 316 amino acid residues. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been determined by isomorphous replacement and refined to a 2.0 A resolution. Two regions, Gly164 to Gly167 and Ile226 to Arg241, are invisible on the electron density map. The refined model of the subunit includes 296 amino acid residues and 107 solvent molecules. The crystallographic R-factor is 18.6% for 17.914 reflections with F > 3 sigma between 6.0 A and 2.0 A. The structure consists of three domains: the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. In the tetrameric molecule, two subunits that are in close contact form a tight dimer, two tight dimers forming a tetramer with two solvent regions. The ATP molecule is located in the cleft between the central and C-terminal domains. The ATP binding site is surrounded by two sets of the structural motif that belong to those respective domains. Each motif consists of an anti-parallel beta-sheet and a glycine-rich loop.
- Guillou F, Liao M, Garcia-Espana A, Lusty CJ
- Mutational analysis of carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Substitution of Glu841 leads to loss of functional coupling between the two catalytic domains of the synthetase subunit.
- Biochemistry. 1992; 31: 1656-64
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The synthetase subunit of Escherichia coli carbamyl phosphate synthetase has two catalytic nucleotide-binding domains, one involved in the activation of HCO3- and the second in phosphorylation of carbamate. Here we show that a Glu841----Lys841 substitution in a putative ATP-binding domain located in the carboxyl half of the synthetase abolishes overall synthesis of carbamyl phosphate with either glutamine or NH3 as the nitrogen source. Measurements of partial activities indicate that while HCO3(-)-dependent ATP hydrolysis at saturating concentrations of substrate proceeds at higher than normal rates, ATP synthesis from ADP and carbamyl phosphate is nearly completely suppressed by the mutation. These results indicate Glu841 to be an essential residue for the phosphorylation of carbamate in the terminal step of the catalytic mechanism. The Lys841 substitution also affects the kinetic properties of the HCO3- activation site. Both kcat and Km for ATP increase 10-fold, while Km for HCO3- is increased 100-fold. Significantly, NH3 decreases rather than stimulates Pi release from ATP in the HCO3(-)-dependent ATPase reaction. The increase in kcat of the HCO3(-)-dependent ATPase reaction, and an impaired ability of the Lys841 enzyme to catalyze the reaction of NH3 with carboxy phosphate, strongly argues for interactions between the two catalytic ATP sites that couple the formation of enzyme-bound carbamate with its phosphorylation.
- Miller AW, Kuo LC
- Ligand-induced isomerizations of Escherichia coli ornithine transcarbamoylase. An ultraviolet difference analysis.
- J Biol Chem. 1990; 265: 15023-7
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Ligand-induced ultraviolet difference spectra have been determined for Escherichia coli ornithine transcarbamoylase. The most prominent feature of the spectra is an absorbance difference which resembles a single period of a sine wave spanning the 245-320 nm region with a maximum at approximately 270 nm and a minimum at around 295-300 nm. This broad absorbance difference is typical of a blue-shift 1La band of tryptophan. Superimposed on the broad band in the 275-310 nm region is a series of smaller, narrow peaks resulted from red-shifted 1Lb bands of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. At pH 8.5, only carbamoyl phosphate and its analog phosphonacetamide yield a large ultraviolet difference absorbance (approximately 1800 M-1 cm-1) when bound to the enzyme. The spectra obtained are essentially the same in lineshape to and 80% in intensity of that produced by the bisubstrate analogy, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine. In contrast, inorganic phosphate, a product of the reaction, induces small protein absorbance changes (approximately 300 M-1 cm-1) mainly in the 275-310 nm range. When complexed to the free enzyme, L-ornithine yields a marginally discernible ultraviolet difference spectrum in the 275-310 nm region, and its analogs L-norvaline and L-citrulline provide no absorbance change. However, inorganic phosphate in combination with any of the L-amino acids produces a difference spectrum similar to that given by carbamoyl phosphate alone. Collectively, these spectra suggest that carbamoyl phosphate elicits an isomerization required for the formation of the ternary complex and are consistent with the compulsory ordered mechanism of the enzyme at pH 8.5 with carbamoyl phosphate being the first substrate bound. Below pH 8, there is a kinetically discernible amount of random binding, but ordered addition is still the preferred pathway (Wargnies B., Legrain, C., and Stalon, V. (1978) Eur J. Biochem. 89, 203-212). Reflecting this change, the difference absorbance of the enzyme bound with carbamoyl phosphate is also pH dependent. The 1La band in the carbamoyl phosphate difference spectrum diminishes by approximately 20% at low pH. The PALO-induced changes, however, are pH invariant suggesting that full extent of the induced-fit isomerization is always reached in the ternary complex.
- Guillou F, Rubino SD, Markovitz RS, Kinney DM, Lusty CJ
- Escherichia coli carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase: domains of glutaminase and synthetase subunit interaction.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989; 86: 8304-8
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Three catalytic domains of the Escherichia coli carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (EC 188.8.131.52) have been identified in previous studies. These include the glutamine amide-N transfer domain in the carboxyl-terminal half of the glutaminase component and at least two adenine nucleotide binding sites in the synthetase component. To delineate the domains involved in subunit interactions, we have examined the effects of deletions and point mutations in the glutaminase and synthetase subunits on formation of the alpha beta holoenzyme. Deletion of the amino-terminal third of the glutaminase subunit abolishes interactions with the synthetase subunit, suggesting that this domain functions to stabilize the complex. Two subunit binding domains have been identified in the synthetase subunit. They are homologous to one another and are located in the amino-terminal and central regions of the synthetase component. These domains are adjacent to regions of the synthetase previously proposed to be involved in ATP binding and, possibly, activation of CO2. The new data enlarge the definition of the structural and functional domains in the two interdependent components of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase.
- Robin JP, Penverne B, Herve G
- Carbamoyl phosphate biosynthesis and partition in pyrimidine and arginine pathways of Escherichia coli. In situ properties of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, ornithine transcarbamylase and aspartate transcarbamylase in permeabilized cells.
- Eur J Biochem. 1989; 183: 519-28
- Display abstract
A procedure for the permeabilization of Escherichia coli cells was adapted to the in situ determination of the catalytic and regulatory properties of the enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of carbamoyl phosphate and its utilization in the pyrimidine and arginine pathways. Differences in enzyme sensitivity to effectors and changes in pH dependence were observed. Partition of carbamoyl phosphate in the two metabolic pathways could be measured under conditions of substrate saturation. The results obtained will allow to test experimentally the theoretical predictions made by A. Goldbeter (1973) PhD thesis, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, on the distribution of carbamoyl phosphate and the oscillation of its intracellular concentration.
- Powers-Lee SG, Corina K
- Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I by 8-azido-ATP.
- J Biol Chem. 1987; 262: 9052-6
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8-Azido-ATP has been found to serve as a photoaffinity label for two distinct ATP sites on rat liver carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I and to allow preliminary localization of these sites. In the dark, 8-azido-ATP acted as a competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP. Ultraviolet irradiation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I in the presence of 8-azido-ATP led to an irreversible loss of activity. ATP specifically protected against this inactivation. The incorporation of 2 mol of 8-azido-ATP per mol of enzyme was required for complete inactivation. To localize the 8-azido-ATP-binding sites to discrete regions of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I which appear to be structural domains, the enzyme was photolabeled with [gamma-32P]8-azido-ATP and subjected to limited proteolytic digestion. The resulting model for the functional roles of the domains is that there is one ATP site on each of the two large internal structural domains of the enzyme. Each of these domains was found to contain the consensus sequences A and B common to many other nucleotide-binding proteins (Walker, J.E., Saraste, M., Runswick, M. J., and Gay, N. J. (1982) EMBO J. 1, 945-951). In addition, there is extensive structural and possibly functional interaction of the smaller N-terminal domain with one of the internal ATP-binding domains, analogous to a subunit interaction observed with the evolutionarily related Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase.
- Meek TD, Karsten WE, DeBrosse CW
- Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II of the mammalian CAD protein: kinetic mechanism and elucidation of reaction intermediates by positional isotope exchange.
- Biochemistry. 1987; 26: 2584-93
- Display abstract
The kinetic mechanism of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II from Syrian hamster kidney cells has been determined at pH 7.2 and 37 degrees C. Initial velocity, product inhibition, and dead-end inhibition studies of both the biosynthetic and bicarbonate-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) reactions are consistent with a partially random sequential mechanism in which the ordered addition of MgATP, HCO3-, and glutamine is followed by the ordered release of glutamate and Pi. Subsequently, the binding of a second MgATP is followed by the release of MgADP, which precedes the random release of carbamoyl phosphate and a second MgADP. Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase II catalyzes beta gamma-bridge:beta-nonbridge positional oxygen exchange of [gamma-18O]ATP in both the ATPase and biosynthetic reactions. Negligible exchange is observed in the strict absence of HCO3- (and glutamine or NH4+). The ratio of moles of MgATP exchanged to moles of MgATP hydrolyzed (nu ex/nu cat) is 0.62 for the ATPase reaction, and it is 0.39 and 0.16 for the biosynthetic reaction in the presence of high levels of glutamine and NH4+, respectively. The observed positional isotope exchange is suppressed but not eliminated at nearly saturating concentrations of either glutamine or NH4+, suggesting that this residual exchange results from either the facile reversal of an E-MgADP-carboxyphosphate-Gln(NH4+) complex or exchange within an E-MgADP-carbamoyl phosphate-MgADP complex, or both. In the 31P NMR spectra of the exchanged [gamma-18O]ATP, the distribution patterns of 16O in the gamma-phosphorus resonances in all samples reflect an exchange mechanism in which a rotationally unhindered molecule of [18O3, 16O]Pi does not readily participate. These results suggest that the formation of carbamate from MgATP, HCO3-, and glutamine proceeds via a stepwise, not concerted mechanism, involving at least one kinetically competent covalent intermediate, such as carboxyphosphate.
- Kopieczna-Grzebieniak E, Jakubowska D
- [Carbamyl phosphate synthase or synthetase?].
- Postepy Biochem. 1986; 32: 225-7
- Karsai T, Rady P, Nagy Z, Szondy Z
- Effect of dimethylnitrosamine upon carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine utilization in rat liver.
- Anticancer Res. 1985; 5: 441-4
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Newborn CFY rats were intraperitoneally treated with a single dose of dimethylnitrosamine. Changes in the activity of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase I and II, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, aspartate carbamoyltransferase and dihydroorotase, i.e. utilization of ornithine and carbamoyl-phosphate pools were followed for 300 days. One or two months after treatment the activity of enzymes which utilize ornithine and carbamoyl-phosphate was enhanced in the cytosol, whereas the activity of the intramitochondrial enzymes in urea synthesis was decreased. Changes in the utilization of ornithine and carbamoyl-phosphate pools, characteristic of proliferating tissues, appeared to be irreversible.
- Raushel FM, Anderson PM, Villafranca JJ
- A nuclear magnetic resonance study of the topography of binding sites of Escherichia coli carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase.
- Biochemistry. 1983; 22: 1872-6
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Two paramagnetic probes, viz., Mn2+ and Cr3+-ATP, were used to map distances to various loci on carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase by using NMR measurements. The paramagnetic influence of Mn2+ on the 1H of L-glutamate and L-ornithine was measured at 200 and 360 MHz. On the basis of these data, a correlation time for the paramagnetic interaction was determined (2 X 10(-9) s) and used to compute distances. These were in the range 7-9 A. Distances were also calculated from Mn2+ to the 13C-5 atom of glutamate (8.6 A), to the monovalent cation site (approximately 8 A), and to the phosphorus atoms of ATP in the Co(NH3)4ATP complex. For studies of the monovalent cation site relaxation rates of 6Li+, 7Li+, and 15NH4+ were measured. With Cr3+ ATP as a paramagnetic substrate analogue, Cr3+ to 13C distances were measured with the substrates HCO3(-) and [5-13C]glutamate. These NMR data provide the first topographical map of the arrangement of substrates, metal ion activators, and allosteric modifiers on the Escherichia coli carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase dimer.
- Casey CA, Anderson PM
- Glutamine- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from Micropterus salmoides. Purification, properties, and inhibition by glutamine analogs.
- J Biol Chem. 1983; 258: 8723-32
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The glutamine- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III present in liver of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has been highly purified. The properties of the enzyme are generally similar to the properties of the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III from spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) previously described (Anderson, P. M. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 12228-12238). However, the bass enzyme is not subject to self-association, and the effects of urea and, particularly, trimethylamine-N-oxide, on catalytic activity are considerably reduced. Ammonia can substitute for glutamine as the nitrogen-donating substrate, but the maximum rate is lower. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III, like other carbamoyl phosphate synthetases, catalyzes two partial reactions, ATP synthesis from carbamoyl phosphate and ADP, and bicarbonate-dependent hydrolysis of ATP; both reactions are greatly stimulated by the presence of N-acetyl-L-glutamate. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III gave no detectable immunological cross-reaction with antibody to the ammonia- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from rat liver mitochondria. The apparent Km value for N-acetyl-L-glutamate decreases significantly as the concentration of L-glutamine increases in the glutamine-dependent reaction, and vice versa. This effect is glutamine-specific. The apparent Km for N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the ammonia-dependent reaction is not affected by changes in ammonia concentration and the apparent Km for ammonia (8 mM) is also not affected by changes in N-acetyl-L-glutamate concentration. Studies involving inhibition of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III by the glutamine analogs acivicin (L-(alpha S,5S)-alpha-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazoleacetic acid), DON (6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine), and chloroketone (L-2-amino-4-oxo-5-chloropentanoic acid), provided additional evidence for significant interaction between the L-glutamine- and N-acetyl-L-glutamate-binding sites. Glutamine-dependent but not ammonia-dependent activity is inhibited by preincubating the enzyme with these analogs. This inhibition requires the presence of both MgATP and N-acetyl-L-glutamate, and is prevented by the additional presence of L-glutamine. Inhibition of the glutamine-dependent reaction by DON or chloroketone is accompanied by a decrease in the apparent Km for N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the ammonia-dependent reaction from 0.3 mM to a value which is nearly the same as that observed in the glutamine-dependent reaction when glutamine is saturating (0.015 mM).
- Rubio V, Britton HG, Grisolia S
- Mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthetase activity in the absence of N-acetyl-L-glutamate. Mechanism of activation by this cofactor.
- Eur J Biochem. 1983; 134: 337-43
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Rat liver carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I is shown to have synthetase and ATPase activity in the absence of acetylglutamate. Km values for ATP, Mg2+ and K+ are greatly increased, the Km for HCO-3 is not changed much, and the Km for NH+4 is markedly reduced. Vmax for the synthetase reaction is less than 20% of that of the acetylglutamate-activated enzyme whereas Vmax for the ATPase activity is greater than 40% of that with acetylglutamate. Pulse-chase experiments with H14CO-3 show formation of less "active CO2" (the central intermediate) than with acetylglutamate; ATPase activity is reduced in proportion, but the synthetase activity is much smaller. Binding of one ATP molecule with high affinity (Kd = 20-30 microM) is shown in the absence of acetylglutamate. This appears to be the molecule of ATPB (ATPB provides the phosphoryl group of carbamoyl phosphate). In contrast, the affinity for ATPA (ATPA yields Pi) is much reduced. Initial velocity measurements without acetylglutamate show a time lag before reaching a constant velocity. At 50 microM acetylglutamate the lag is much longer, but at 10 mM acetylglutamate it is shorter. Activation by acetylglutamate requires ATP at concentrations sufficient to occupy the ATPA and the ATPB binding sites. Preincubation with 10 mM acetylglutamate alone shortens the activation time. From these findings we propose an allosteric model for activation of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase in which there are two active states, R and R . AcGlu. Binding of ATPA is associated with the conversion of T to R. R . AcGlu differs from R in that transfer to carbamate of the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATPB appears to be facilitated.
- Britton HG, Rubio V, Grisolia S
- Synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I in the absence of acetylglutamate. Activation of the enzyme by cryoprotectants.
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981; 99: 1131-7
- Romshe CA, Hilty MD, McClung HJ, Kerzner B, Reiner CB
- Amino acid pattern in Reye syndrome: comparison with clinically similar entities.
- J Pediatr. 1981; 98: 788-90
- Davis RH, Ristow JL, Ginsburgh CL
- Independent localization and regulation of carbamyl phosphate synthetase A polypeptides of Neurospora crassa.
- Mol Gen Genet. 1981; 181: 215-21
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Carbamyl phosphate synthetase A is a two-polypeptide, mitochondrial enzyme of arginine synthesis in Neurospora. The large subunit is encoded in the arg-3 locus and can catalyze formation of carbamyl-P with ammonia as the N donor. The small subunit is encoded in the unlinked arg-2 locus and imparts to the holoenzyme the ability to use glutamine, the biological substrate, as the N donor. By using nonsense mutations of arg-3, it was shown that the small subunit of the enzyme enters the mitochrondrion independently and is regulated in the same manner as it is in wild type. Similarly, arg-2 mutations, affecting the small subunit, have no effect on the localization or the regulation of the large subunit. The two subunits are regulated differently. Like most polypeptides of the pathway, the large subunit is not repressible and derepresses 3- to 5-fold upon arginine-starvation of mycelia. In contrast, the glutamine-dependent activity of the holoenzyme is fully repressible and has a range of variation of over 100-fold. In keeping with this behavior, it is shown here that the small polypeptide, as visualized on two-dimensional gels, is also fully repressible. We conclude that the two subunits of the enzyme are localized independently, controlled independently and over different ranges, and that aggregation kinetics cannot alone explain the unusual regulatory amplitude of the native, two-subunit enzyme. The small subunit molecular weight was shown to be approximately 45,000.
- Raushel FM, Villafranca JJ
- Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance application to positional isotope exchange reactions catalyzed by Escherichia coli carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase: analysis of forward and reverse enzymatic reactions.
- Biochemistry. 1980; 19: 3170-4
- Pillai RP, Raushel FM, Villafranca JJ
- Stereochemistry of binding of thiophosphate analogs of ATP and ADP to carbamate kinase, glutamine synthetase, and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase.
- Arch Biochem Biophys. 1980; 199: 7-15
- Huisman WH, Becker MA
- A radioisotopic method for the assay of carbamoyl phosphate in extracts of cultured human cells.
- Anal Biochem. 1980; 101: 160-5
- Trotta PP, Burt ME, Pinkus LM, Estis LF, Haschemeyer RH, Meister A
- Glutamine-dependent carbamyl-phosphate synthetase (Escherichia coli); preparation of subunits.
- Methods Enzymol. 1978; 51: 21-9
- Pierard A, Schroter B
- Structure-function relationships in the arginine pathway carbamoylphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
- J Bacteriol. 1978; 134: 167-76
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The arginine pathway carbamoylphosphate synthase (CPSase A) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be highly unstable and could not be substantially purified. In spite of this instability, a number of important properties of this enzyme were determined with crude preparations. A molecular weight of 140,000 (7.9S) was estimated for the native enzyme by sucrose gradient centrifugation; a significantly higher value, 175,000, was obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex. The enzyme is an aggregate consisting of two protein components, coded for by the unlinked genes cpaI and cpaII. These components were separated by diethylaminoethyl-cellulose chromatography. Their molecular weights, estimated by Sephadex gel filtration, were 36,000 and 130,000. The large component catalyzed the synthesis of carbamoylphosphate from ammonia. The small component was required in addition to the large one for the physiologically functional glutamine-dependent activity. Apparent Michaelis constants at pH 7.5 of 1.25 mM for glutamine and 75 mM for NH(4)Cl were measured with the native enzyme. The use of various glutamine analogs, including 2-amino-4-oxo-5-chloropentanoic acid, indicated that binding of glutamine to a site located on the small component was followed by transfer of its amide nitrogen to the ammonia site on the heavy component. This ammonia site was able to function independently of the utilization of glutamine. However, binding of glutamine was conjectured to cause a conformational change in the heavy component that greatly increased the rate of synthesis of carbamoylphosphate from ammonia. Glutamine, which was also shown to stabilize the aggregation of the two components, appeared to be a major effector of the catalytic and structural properties of CPSase A. In view of these observations, the CPSase A of yeast appears to share a number of structural and catalytic properties with the Escherichia coli enzyme. Obviously, the unlinked cpaI and cpaII genes of yeast are homologous to the adjacent carA and carB genes that code for the two subunits of the bacterial enzyme.
- Powers SG, Meister A
- Mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Binding of ATP to the two functionally different ATP sites.
- J Biol Chem. 1978; 253: 800-3
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Application of the pulse-chase procedure to study of the binding and utilization of ATP by glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli showed that the enzyme binds the two molecules of ATP used in this reaction at the same time, and that the two ATP-binding sites are functionally different. Thus, ATP bound to the first ATP site is used for carboxy phosphate formation, and ATP bound to the second ATP site is used for phosphorylation of carbamate. The present and previous findings support a mechanism that involves intermediate formation of two highly unstable intermediates: carboxy phosphate and carbamate. It is proposed that the presence of all of the reactants on the enzyme at the start of the catalytic cycle allows immediate utilization of these labile compounds in the carbamyl phosphate synthesis reaction.
- Wilson RG, Masters PL
- Neonatal death due to carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency.
- Aust Paediatr J. 1977; 13: 119-21
- Powers SG, Riordan JF
- Functional arginyl residues as ATP binding sites of glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975; 72: 2616-20
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The reaction of phenylglyoxal with two enzymes in which ATP plays a complex role has been studied. Both ovine brain glutamine synthetase and Escherichia coli carbamyl phosphate synthetase [carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine); ATP:carbamate phosphotransferase (dephosphorylating, amido-transferring); EC 184.108.40.206]were inactivated by phenylglyoxal. The specificity of this reagent for arginyl residues of the two proteins was confirmed by amino acid analysis. ATP, but not the other substrates, protected these enzymes against inactivation by phenylglyoxal. Carbamyl phosphate synthetase was also protected by IMP and ornithine, positive allosteric effectors that alter the enzymatic activity be increasing the affinity for ATP. UMP, a negative allosteric effector that decreases the affinity for ATP, did not protect against inactivation. Differential labeling experiments with [14C]phenylglyoxal showed that the number of arginyl residues protected by ATP corresponded quite well to the known number of ATP catalytic sites for each protein. These data indicate that arginyl residues at the active sites of glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase are involved in the binding of ATP. This phenylglyoxal inactivation study also provided information about the mechanistic role of ATP in the two synthetases. The data obtained on glutamine synthetase support the theory that ATP is attached to the enzyme as a portion of the catalytic site, and that its presence is essential for the binding of glutamate and glutamine. The data obtained on carbamyl phosphate synthetase are consistent with the previous proposal that carbonyl phosphate is an intermediate in the ATP-dependent activation of bicarbonate by this enzyme. It is also of interest that, with both glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase, only a small portion of the total arginyl population of these enzymes reacted with phenylglyoxal. A summary of previous studies on the modification of enzyme arginyl residues is presented.
- Trotta PP, Burt ME, Haschemeyer RH, Meister A
- Reversible dissociation of carbamyl phosphate synthetase into a regulated synthesis subunit and a subunit required for glutamine utilization.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971; 68: 2599-603
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Carbamyl phosphate synthetase (from Escherichia coli) consists of a 7.3S protomeric unit that contains one heavy polypeptide chain (molecular weight about 130,000) and one light chain (molecular weight about 42,000). The heavy and light chains were separated by gel filtration in the presence of 1 M potassium thiocyanate. In contrast to the native enzyme and the reconstituted enzyme (prepared by mixing the separated heavy and light chains), the heavy chain does not catalyze glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthesis, although it does catalyze the synthesis of carbamyl phosphate from ammonia. The heavy chain also catalyzes two of the partial reactions catalyzed by the intact enzyme; i.e., the bicarbonate-dependent cleavage of ATP and the synthesis of ATP from ADP and carbamyl phosphate. Both positive (ammonia, ornithine, IMP) and negative (UMP) allosteric regulatory sites are located on the heavy chain. The only catalytic activity exhibited by the light chain is the hydrolysis of glutamine. A model is presented according to which glutamine binds to the light chain, which is followed by release of nitrogen from the amide group for use by the heavy chain. The findings suggest that glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase (and perhaps other glutamine amidotransferases) arose in the course of evolution by a combination of a primitive ammonia-dependent synthetic enzyme and a glutaminase; this combination may have been associated with a change from ammonia to glutamine as the principal source of nitrogen.
- Pierard A
- Control of the activity of Escherichia coli carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by antagonistic allosteric effectors.
- Science. 1966; 154: 1572-3
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The synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate required in both arginine and pyrimidine biosyntheses is carried out by a single enzyme in Escherichia coli. Opposed effects of pyrimidine nucleotides and of ornithine on the activity of the enzyme ensure a proper supply of carbamoyl phosphate according to the needs of the two biosynthetic sequences.