Secondary literature sources for DUF1220
The following references were automatically generated.
- Davis JM, Searles Quick VB, Sikela JM
- Replicated linear association between DUF1220 copy number and severity of social impairment in autism.
- Hum Genet. 2015; 134: 569-75
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Sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains exhibit an exceptional human-specific increase in copy number and have been associated with several phenotypes related to brain size. Autism is a highly heritable and heterogeneous condition characterized behaviorally by social and communicative impairments, and increased repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Given the accelerated brain growth pattern observed in many individuals with autism, and the association between DUF1220 subtype CON1 copy number and brain size, we previously investigated associations between CON1 copy number and autism-related symptoms. We determined that CON1 copy number increase is associated with increasing severity of all three behavioral features of autism. The present study sought to replicate these findings in an independent population (N = 166). Our results demonstrate a replication of the linear relationship between CON1 copy number and the severity of social impairment in individuals with autism as measured by Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Social Diagnostic Score, such that with each additional copy of CON1 Social Diagnostic Score increased 0.24 points (SE = 0.11, p = 0.036). We also identified an analogous trend between CON1 copy number and Communicative Diagnostic Score, but did not replicate the relationship between CON1 copy number and Repetitive Behavior Diagnostic Score. Interestingly, these associations appear to be most pronounced in multiplex children. These results, representing the first replication of a gene dosage relationship with the severity of a primary symptom of autism, lend further support to the possibility that the same protein domain family implicated in the evolutionary expansion of the human brain may also be involved in autism severity.
- Caspermeyer J
- Testis size matters for genome evolution.
- Mol Biol Evol. 2014; 31: 1638-1638
- Davis JM, Keeney JG, Sikela JM, Hepburn S
- Mode of genetic inheritance modifies the association of head circumference and autism-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study.
- PLoS One. 2013; 8: 74940-74940
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BACKGROUND: Frequently individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been noted with a larger head circumference (HC) than their typical developing peers. Biologic hypotheses suggest that an overly rapid brain growth leads to the core symptoms of ASD by impairing connectivity. Literature is divided however where deleterious, protective and null associations of HC with ASD symptoms in individuals with ASD have been found. METHOD: Individuals (n = 1,416) from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange with ASD were examined for associations of HC with ASD like symptoms. Mixed models controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, simplex/multiplex status and accounting for correlations between siblings were used. Interactions by simplex/multiplex were explored. Adjustments for height in a sub-population with available data were explored as well. RESULTS: A Significant interaction term (p = 0.03) suggested that the effect of HC was dependent on whether the individual was simplex or multiplex. In simplex individuals at mean age (8.9 years) 1 cm increase in head circumference was associated with a 24% increase in the odds of a high social diagnostic score from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (odds ratio = 1.24, p = 0.01). There was no association in multiplex individuals. Additionally, individuals classified with a non-verbal IQ <70 were 90% simplex and had a significantly increased head circumference (0.7 cm p = 0.03) relative to a mid-range non-verbal IQ group. Interestingly, children classified with a >110 non-verbal IQ also had an increased HC (0.4 cm p = 0.04), relative to a mid-range non-verbal IQ group, and were 90% multiplex. HC effects do not appear to be confounded by height, however, larger samples with height information are needed. CONCLUSION: The potential link between brain growth and autism like symptoms is complex and could depend on specific etiologies. Further investigations accounting for a likely mode of inheritance will help identify an ASD subtype related to HC.
- Mesquita B et al.
- Frequent copy number gains at 1q21 and 1q32 are associated with overexpression of the ETS transcription factors ETV3 and ELF3 in breast cancer irrespective of molecular subtypes.
- Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 138: 37-45
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Several ETS transcription factors are involved in the pathogenesis of human cancers by different mechanisms. As gene copy number gain/amplification is an alternative mechanism of oncogenic activation and 1q gain is the most common copy number change in breast carcinoma, we investigated how that genomic change impacts in the expression of the three 1q ETS family members ETV3, ELK4, and ELF3. We have first evaluated 141 breast carcinomas for genome-wide copy number changes by chromosomal CGH and showed that 1q21 and 1q32 were the two chromosome bands with most frequent genomic copy number gains. Second, we confirmed by FISH with locus-specific BAC clones that cases showing 1q gain/amplification by CGH showed copy number increase of the ETS genes ETV3 (located in 1q21~23), ELF3, and ELK4 (both in 1q32). Third, gene expression levels of the three 1q ETS genes, as well as their potential targets MYC and CRISP3, were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. We here show for the first time that the most common genomic copy number gains in breast cancer, 1q21 and 1q32, are associated with overexpression of the ETS transcription factors ETV3 and ELF3 (but not ELK4) at these loci irrespective of molecular subtypes. Among the three 1q ETS genes, ELF3 has a relevant role in breast carcinogenesis and is also the most likely target of the 1q copy number increase. The basal-like molecular subtype presented the worst prognosis regarding disease-specific survival, but no additional prognostic value was found for 1q copy number status or ELF3 expression. In addition, we show that there is a correlation between the expression of the oncogene MYC, irrespectively of copy number gain at its loci in 8q24, and the expression of both the transcriptional repressor ETV3 and the androgen respondent ELK4.
- Dolcetti A et al.
- 1q21.1 Microduplication expression in adults.
- Genet Med. 2013; 15: 282-9
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PURPOSE: Rare, recurrent chromosome 1q21.1 duplications have been associated with developmental delay, congenital anomalies, and macrocephaly in children. Data on adult clinical expression would help to inform genetic counseling. METHODS: A systematic review of 22 studies reporting 107 individuals (59 children and 48 adults) with 1q21.1 duplications was conducted. We compiled the available phenotypic data to attempt to identify the most highly associated clinical features and to determine expression in adults. We also report on seven adult cases newly identified in the studies of schizophrenia and tetralogy of Fallot at our center. RESULTS: Five cases were ascertained as controls, 32 as relatives of probands, and 70 as having clinical features: autism spectrum disorder (n = 15), congenital heart disease (n = 12), schizophrenia (n = 10), or other, mostly developmental, features (n = 33). The 1q21.1 duplication was significantly enriched in the cohorts with schizophrenia (P = 0.0155) and tetralogy of Fallot (P = 0.0040) at our center as compared with controls. There was a paucity of clinical data for adults; the most common features, other than those used for ascertainment, included macrocephaly and abnormalities of possible connective tissue origin (e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome). CONCLUSION: Further data are needed to characterize lifetime expression of 1q21.1 duplications. These initial results, however, suggest that anticipatory care should include attention to later-onset conditions such as schizophrenia.
- Silversides CK et al.
- Rare copy number variations in adults with tetralogy of Fallot implicate novel risk gene pathways.
- PLoS Genet. 2012; 8: 1002843-1002843
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Structural genetic changes, especially copy number variants (CNVs), represent a major source of genetic variation contributing to human disease. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, but to date little is known about the role of CNVs in the etiology of TOF. Using high-resolution genome-wide microarrays and stringent calling methods, we investigated rare CNVs in a prospectively recruited cohort of 433 unrelated adults with TOF and/or pulmonary atresia at a single centre. We excluded those with recognized syndromes, including 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We identified candidate genes for TOF based on converging evidence between rare CNVs that overlapped the same gene in unrelated individuals and from pathway analyses comparing rare CNVs in TOF cases to those in epidemiologic controls. Even after excluding the 53 (10.7%) subjects with 22q11.2 deletions, we found that adults with TOF had a greater burden of large rare genic CNVs compared to controls (8.82% vs. 4.33%, p = 0.0117). Six loci showed evidence for recurrence in TOF or related congenital heart disease, including typical 1q21.1 duplications in four (1.18%) of 340 Caucasian probands. The rare CNVs implicated novel candidate genes of interest for TOF, including PLXNA2, a gene involved in semaphorin signaling. Independent pathway analyses highlighted developmental processes as potential contributors to the pathogenesis of TOF. These results indicate that individually rare CNVs are collectively significant contributors to the genetic burden of TOF. Further, the data provide new evidence for dosage sensitive genes in PLXNA2-semaphorin signaling and related developmental processes in human cardiovascular development, consistent with previous animal models.
- Hosak L, Silhan P, Hosakova J
- Genomic copy number variations: A breakthrough in our knowledge on schizophrenia etiology?
- Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012; 33: 183-90
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OBJECTIVES: The term "copy number variation/variant" (CNV) denotes a DNA sequence with a magnitude of 1 kb at least which is differently represented among individuals based on its deletion or duplication. Since 2008, multiple studies have reported copy number variations in schizophrenia, and they seem to fill in a gap in our knowledge on the genetic background of schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to sum up the current findings related to CNVs in schizophrenia in order to facilitate further research. METHODS: We searched the PubMed computer database using the key words "schizophrenia AND CNVs" on 26th October 2011. Out of 91 obtained results, we selected the references based on their relevance. RESULTS: The CNVs at genome loci 1q21.1, 2p16.3, 3q29, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p13.1 and 22q11.2 were associated with schizophrenia most frequently. The data provide evidence for low prevalent, but highly penetrant CNVs associated with schizophrenia. CNV deletions show higher penetrance than duplications. Larger CNVs often have higher penetrance than smaller CNVs. Although the vast majority of CNVs are inherited, CNVs that have newly occurred as de novo mutations have more readily been implicated in schizophrenia. De novo CNVs may be responsible for the presence of schizophrenia in only one of the two monozygotic twins, who otherwise have identical genomes. CONCLUSION: Identifying CNVs in schizophrenia can lead to changes in the treatment and genetic counselling. Our knowledge on the genetic background of neurodevelopmental disorders may also reduce stigma in schizophrenia.
- Striano P et al.
- Clinical significance of rare copy number variations in epilepsy: a case-control survey using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization.
- Arch Neurol. 2012; 69: 322-30
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OBJECTIVE: To perform an extensive search for genomic rearrangements by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization in patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Epilepsy centers in Italy. PATIENTS: Two hundred seventy-nine patients with unexplained epilepsy, 265 individuals with nonsyndromic mental retardation but no epilepsy, and 246 healthy control subjects were screened by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Identification of copy number variations (CNVs) and gene enrichment. RESULTS: Rare CNVs occurred in 26 patients (9.3%) and 16 healthy control subjects (6.5%) (P = .26). The CNVs identified in patients were larger (P = .03) and showed higher gene content (P = .02) than those in control subjects. The CNVs larger than 1 megabase (P = .002) and including more than 10 genes (P = .005) occurred more frequently in patients than in control subjects. Nine patients (34.6%) among those harboring rare CNVs showed rearrangements associated with emerging microdeletion or microduplication syndromes. Mental retardation and neuropsychiatric features were associated with rare CNVs (P = .004), whereas epilepsy type was not. The CNV rate in patients with epilepsy and mental retardation or neuropsychiatric features is not different from that observed in patients with mental retardation only. Moreover, significant enrichment of genes involved in ion transport was observed within CNVs identified in patients with epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with epilepsy show a significantly increased burden of large, rare, gene-rich CNVs, particularly when associated with mental retardation and neuropsychiatric features. The limited overlap between CNVs observed in the epilepsy group and those observed in the group with mental retardation only as well as the involvement of specific (ion channel) genes indicate a specific association between the identified CNVs and epilepsy. Screening for CNVs should be performed for diagnostic purposes preferentially in patients with epilepsy and mental retardation or neuropsychiatric features.
- Crespi BJ, Crofts HJ
- Association testing of copy number variants in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders.
- J Neurodev Disord. 2012; 4: 15-15
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BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have been associated with an overlapping set of copy number variant loci, but the nature and degree of overlap in copy number variants (deletions compared to duplications) between these two disorders remains unclear. METHODS: We systematically evaluated three lines of evidence: (1) the statistical bases for associations of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia with a set of the primary CNVs thus far investigated, from previous studies; (2) data from case series studies on the occurrence of these CNVs in autism spectrum disorders, especially among children, and (3) data on the extent to which the CNVs were associated with intellectual disability and developmental, speech, or language delays. We also conducted new analyses of existing data on these CNVs in autism by pooling data from seven case control studies. RESULTS: Four of the CNVs considered, dup 1q21.1, dup 15q11-q13, del 16p11.2, and dup 22q11.21, showed clear statistical evidence as autism risk factors, whereas eight CNVs, del 1q21.1, del 3q29, del 15q11.2, del 15q13.3, dup 16p11.2, dup 16p13.1, del 17p12, and del 22q11.21, were strongly statistically supported as risk factors for schizophrenia. Three of the CNVs, dup 1q21.1, dup 16p11.2, and dup 16p13.1, exhibited statistical support as risk factors for both autism and schizophrenia, although for each of these CNVs statistical significance was nominal for tests involving one of the two disorders. For the CNVs that were statistically associated with schizophrenia but were not statistically associated with autism, a notable number of children with the CNVs have been diagnosed with autism or ASD; children with these CNVs also demonstrate a high incidence of intellectual disability and developmental, speech, or language delays. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that although CNV loci notably overlap between autism and schizophrenia, the degree of strongly statistically supported overlap in specific CNVs at these loci remains limited. These analyses also suggest that relatively severe premorbidity to CNV-associated schizophrenia in children may sometimes be diagnosed as autism spectrum disorder.
- Montgomery SH, Capellini I, Venditti C, Barton RA, Mundy NI
- Adaptive evolution of four microcephaly genes and the evolution of brain size in anthropoid primates.
- Mol Biol Evol. 2011; 28: 625-38
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The anatomical basis and adaptive function of the expansion in primate brain size have long been studied; however, we are only beginning to understand the genetic basis of these evolutionary changes. Genes linked to human primary microcephaly have received much attention as they have accelerated evolutionary rates along lineages leading to humans. However, these studies focus narrowly on apes, and the link between microcephaly gene evolution and brain evolution is disputed. We analyzed the molecular evolution of four genes associated with microcephaly (ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, MCPH1) across 21 species representing all major clades of anthropoid primates. Contrary to prevailing assumptions, positive selection was not limited to or intensified along the lineage leading to humans. In fact we show that all four loci were subject to positive selection across the anthropoid primate phylogeny. We developed clearly defined hypotheses to explicitly test if selection on these loci was associated with the evolution of brain size. We found positive relationships between both CDK5RAP2 and ASPM and neonatal brain mass and somewhat weaker relationships between these genes and adult brain size. In contrast, there is no evidence linking CENPJ and MCPH1 to brain size evolution. The stronger association of ASPM and CDK5RAP2 evolution with neonatal brain size than with adult brain size is consistent with these loci having a direct effect on prenatal neuronal proliferation. These results suggest that primate brain size may have at least a partially conserved genetic basis. Our results contradict a previous study that linked adaptive evolution of ASPM to changes in relative cortex size; however, our analysis indicates that this conclusion is not robust. Our finding that the coding regions of two widely expressed loci has experienced pervasive positive selection in relation to a complex, quantitative developmental phenotype provides a notable counterexample to the commonly asserted hypothesis that cis-regulatory regions play a dominant role in phenotypic evolution.
- Stewart LR, Hall AL, Kang SH, Shaw CA, Beaudet AL
- High frequency of known copy number abnormalities and maternal duplication 15q11-q13 in patients with combined schizophrenia and epilepsy.
- BMC Med Genet. 2011; 12: 154-154
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BACKGROUND: Many copy number variants (CNVs) are documented to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Chromosomal deletions of 1q21.1, 3q29, 15q13.3, 22q11.2, and NRXN1 and duplications of 15q11-q13 (maternal), 16p11, and 16p13.3 have the strongest association with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that cases with both schizophrenia and epilepsy would have a higher frequency of disease-associated CNVs and would represent an enriched sample for detection of other mutations associated with schizophrenia. METHODS: We used array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to analyze 235 individuals with both schizophrenia and epilepsy, 80 with bipolar disorder and epilepsy, and 191 controls. RESULTS: We detected 10 schizophrenia plus epilepsy cases in 235 (4.3%) with the above mentioned CNVs compared to 0 in 191 controls (p = 0.003). Other likely pathological findings in schizophrenia plus epilepsy cases included 1 deletion 16p13 and 1 duplication 7q11.23 for a total of 12/235 (5.1%) while a possibly pathogenic duplication of 22q11.2 was found in one control for a total of 1 in 191 (0.5%) controls (p = 0.008). The rate of abnormality in the schizophrenia plus epilepsy of 10/235 for the more definite CNVs compares to a rate of 75/7336 for these same CNVs in a series of unselected schizophrenia cases (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSION: We found a statistically significant increase in the frequency of CNVs known or likely to be associated with schizophrenia in individuals with both schizophrenia and epilepsy compared to controls. We found an overall 5.1% detection rate of likely pathological findings which is the highest frequency of such findings in a series of schizophrenia patients to date. This evidence suggests that the frequency of disease-associated CNVs in patients with both schizophrenia and epilepsy is significantly higher than for unselected schizophrenia.
- Sahoo T et al.
- Copy number variants of schizophrenia susceptibility loci are associated with a spectrum of speech and developmental delays and behavior problems.
- Genet Med. 2011; 13: 868-80
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PURPOSE: : Recently, molecular cytogenetic techniques have identified novel copy number variants in individuals with schizophrenia. However, no large-scale prospective studies have been performed to characterize the broader spectrum of phenotypes associated with such copy number variants in individuals with unexplained physical and intellectual disabilities encountered in a diagnostic setting. METHODS: : We analyzed 38,779 individuals referred to our diagnostic laboratory for microarray testing for the presence of copy number variants encompassing 20 putative schizophrenia susceptibility loci. We also analyzed the indications for study for individuals with copy number variants overlapping those found in six individuals referred for schizophrenia. RESULTS: : After excluding larger gains or losses that encompassed additional genes outside the candidate loci (e.g., whole-arm gains/losses), we identified 1113 individuals with copy number variants encompassing schizophrenia susceptibility loci and 37 individuals with copy number variants overlapping those present in the six individuals referred to our laboratory for schizophrenia. Of these, 1035 had a copy number variant of one of six recurrent loci: 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11, and 22q11.2. The indications for study for these 1150 individuals were diverse and included developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum, and multiple congenital anomalies. CONCLUSION: : The results from our study, the largest genotype-first analysis of schizophrenia susceptibility loci to date, suggest that the phenotypic effects of copy number variants associated with schizophrenia are pleiotropic and imply the existence of shared biologic pathways among multiple neurodevelopmental conditions.
- Schuster-Bockler B, Conrad D, Bateman A
- Dosage sensitivity shapes the evolution of copy-number varied regions.
- PLoS One. 2010; 5: 9474-9474
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Dosage sensitivity is an important evolutionary force which impacts on gene dispensability and duplicability. The newly available data on human copy-number variation (CNV) allow an analysis of the most recent and ongoing evolution. Provided that heterozygous gene deletions and duplications actually change gene dosage, we expect to observe negative selection against CNVs encompassing dosage sensitive genes. In this study, we make use of several sources of population genetic data to identify selection on structural variations of dosage sensitive genes. We show that CNVs can directly affect expression levels of contained genes. We find that genes encoding members of protein complexes exhibit limited expression variation and overlap significantly with a manually derived set of dosage sensitive genes. We show that complexes and other dosage sensitive genes are underrepresented in CNV regions, with a particular bias against frequent variations and duplications. These results suggest that dosage sensitivity is a significant force of negative selection on regions of copy-number variation.
- Willemsen MH et al.
- Identification of ANKRD11 and ZNF778 as candidate genes for autism and variable cognitive impairment in the novel 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome.
- Eur J Hum Genet. 2010; 18: 429-35
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The clinical use of array comparative genomic hybridization in the evaluation of patients with multiple congenital anomalies and/or mental retardation has recently led to the discovery of a number of novel microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. We present four male patients with overlapping molecularly defined de novo microdeletions of 16q24.3. The clinical features observed in these patients include facial dysmorphisms comprising prominent forehead, large ears, smooth philtrum, pointed chin and wide mouth, variable cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorder, structural anomalies of the brain, seizures and neonatal thrombocytopenia. Although deletions vary in size, the common region of overlap is only 90 kb and comprises two known genes, Ankyrin Repeat Domain 11 (ANKRD11) (MIM 611192) and Zinc Finger 778 (ZNF778), and is located approximately 10 kb distally to Cadherin 15 (CDH15) (MIM 114019). This region is not found as a copy number variation in controls. We propose that these patients represent a novel and distinctive microdeletion syndrome, characterized by autism spectrum disorder, variable cognitive impairment, facial dysmorphisms and brain abnormalities. We suggest that haploinsufficiency of ANKRD11 and/or ZNF778 contribute to this phenotype and speculate that further investigation of non-deletion patients who have features suggestive of this 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome might uncover other mutations in one or both of these genes.
- Marques-Bonet T et al.
- A burst of segmental duplications in the genome of the African great ape ancestor.
- Nature. 2009; 457: 877-81
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It is generally accepted that the extent of phenotypic change between human and great apes is dissonant with the rate of molecular change. Between these two groups, proteins are virtually identical, cytogenetically there are few rearrangements that distinguish ape-human chromosomes, and rates of single-base-pair change and retrotransposon activity have slowed particularly within hominid lineages when compared to rodents or monkeys. Studies of gene family evolution indicate that gene loss and gain are enriched within the primate lineage. Here, we perform a systematic analysis of duplication content of four primate genomes (macaque, orang-utan, chimpanzee and human) in an effort to understand the pattern and rates of genomic duplication during hominid evolution. We find that the ancestral branch leading to human and African great apes shows the most significant increase in duplication activity both in terms of base pairs and in terms of events. This duplication acceleration within the ancestral species is significant when compared to lineage-specific rate estimates even after accounting for copy-number polymorphism and homoplasy. We discover striking examples of recurrent and independent gene-containing duplications within the gorilla and chimpanzee that are absent in the human lineage. Our results suggest that the evolutionary properties of copy-number mutation differ significantly from other forms of genetic mutation and, in contrast to the hominid slowdown of single-base-pair mutations, there has been a genomic burst of duplication activity at this period during human evolution.
- Mefford HC et al.
- A method for rapid, targeted CNV genotyping identifies rare variants associated with neurocognitive disease.
- Genome Res. 2009; 19: 1579-85
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Copy-number variants (CNVs) are substantial contributors to human disease. A central challenge in CNV-disease association studies is to characterize the pathogenicity of rare and possibly incompletely penetrant events, which requires the accurate detection of rare CNVs in large numbers of individuals. Cost and throughput issues limit our ability to perform these studies. We have adapted the Illumina BeadXpress SNP genotyping assay and developed an algorithm, SNP-Conditional OUTlier detection (SCOUT), to rapidly and accurately detect both rare and common CNVs in large cohorts. This approach is customizable, cost effective, highly parallelized, and largely automated. We applied this method to screen 69 loci in 1105 children with unexplained intellectual disability, identifying pathogenic variants in 3.1% of these individuals and potentially pathogenic variants in an additional 2.3%. We identified seven individuals (0.7%) with a deletion of 16p11.2, which has been previously associated with autism. Our results widen the phenotypic spectrum of these deletions to include intellectual disability without autism. We also detected 1.65-3.4 Mbp duplications at 16p13.11 in 1.1% of affected individuals and 350 kbp deletions at 15q11.2, near the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region, in 0.8% of affected individuals. Compared to published CNVs in controls they are significantly (P = 4.7 x 10(-5) and 0.003, respectively) enriched in these children, supporting previously published hypotheses that they are neurocognitive disease risk factors. More generally, this approach offers a previously unavailable balance between customization, cost, and throughput for analysis of CNVs and should prove valuable for targeted CNV detection in both research and diagnostic settings.
- Hasin Y et al.
- High-resolution copy-number variation map reflects human olfactory receptor diversity and evolution.
- PLoS Genet. 2008; 4: 1000249-1000249
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Olfactory receptors (ORs), which are involved in odorant recognition, form the largest mammalian protein superfamily. The genomic content of OR genes is considerably reduced in humans, as reflected by the relatively small repertoire size and the high fraction ( approximately 55%) of human pseudogenes. Since several recent low-resolution surveys suggested that OR genomic loci are frequently affected by copy-number variants (CNVs), we hypothesized that CNVs may play an important role in the evolution of the human olfactory repertoire. We used high-resolution oligonucleotide tiling microarrays to detect CNVs across 851 OR gene and pseudogene loci. Examining genomic DNA from 25 individuals with ancestry from three populations, we identified 93 OR gene loci and 151 pseudogene loci affected by CNVs, generating a mosaic of OR dosages across persons. Our data suggest that approximately 50% of the CNVs involve more than one OR, with the largest CNV spanning 11 loci. In contrast to earlier reports, we observe that CNVs are more frequent among OR pseudogenes than among intact genes, presumably due to both selective constraints and CNV formation biases. Furthermore, our results show an enrichment of CNVs among ORs with a close human paralog or lacking a one-to-one ortholog in chimpanzee. Interestingly, among the latter we observed an enrichment in CNV losses over gains, a finding potentially related to the known diminution of the human OR repertoire. Quantitative PCR experiments performed for 122 sampled ORs agreed well with the microarray results and uncovered 23 additional CNVs. Importantly, these experiments allowed us to uncover nine common deletion alleles that affect 15 OR genes and five pseudogenes. Comparison to the chimpanzee reference genome revealed that all of the deletion alleles are human derived, therefore indicating a profound effect of human-specific deletions on the individual OR gene content. Furthermore, these deletion alleles may be used in future genetic association studies of olfactory inter-individual differences.
- Vallender EJ, Mekel-Bobrov N, Lahn BT
- Genetic basis of human brain evolution.
- Trends Neurosci. 2008; 31: 637-44
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Human evolution is characterized by a rapid increase in brain size and complexity. Decades of research have made important strides in identifying anatomical and physiological substrates underlying the unique features of the human brain. By contrast, it has become possible only very recently to examine the genetic basis of human brain evolution. Through comparative genomics, tantalizing insights regarding human brain evolution have emerged. The genetic changes that potentially underlie human brain evolution span a wide range from single-nucleotide substitutions to large-scale structural alterations of the genome. Similarly, the functional consequences of these genetic changes vary greatly, including protein-sequence alterations, cis-regulatory changes and even the emergence of new genes and the extinction of existing ones. Here, we provide a general review of recent findings into the genetic basis of human brain evolution, highlight the most notable trends that have emerged and caution against over-interpretation of current data.
- Crespi B, Badcock C
- Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain.
- Behav Brain Sci. 2008; 31: 241-61
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Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autistic-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions, with a focus on schizophrenia. This suite of traits is inter-correlated, in that autism involves a general pattern of constrained overgrowth, whereas schizophrenia involves undergrowth. These disorders also exhibit diametric patterns for traits related to social brain development, including aspects of gaze, agency, social cognition, local versus global processing, language, and behavior. Social cognition is thus underdeveloped in autistic-spectrum conditions and hyper-developed on the psychotic spectrum.;>We propose and evaluate a novel hypothesis that may help to explain these diametric phenotypes: that the development of these two sets of conditions is mediated in part by alterations of genomic imprinting. Evidence regarding the genetic, physiological, neurological, and psychological underpinnings of psychotic-spectrum conditions supports the hypothesis that the etiologies of these conditions involve biases towards increased relative effects from imprinted genes with maternal expression, which engender a general pattern of undergrowth. By contrast, autistic-spectrum conditions appear to involve increased relative bias towards effects of paternally expressed genes, which mediate overgrowth. This hypothesis provides a simple yet comprehensive theory, grounded in evolutionary biology and genetics, for understanding the causes and phenotypes of autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions.
- Dumas L et al.
- Gene copy number variation spanning 60 million years of human and primate evolution.
- Genome Res. 2007; 17: 1266-77
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Given the evolutionary importance of gene duplication to the emergence of species-specific traits, we have extended the application of cDNA array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to survey gene duplications and losses genome-wide across 10 primate species, including human. Using human cDNA arrays that contained 41,126 cDNAs, corresponding to 24,473 unique human genes, we identified 4159 genes that likely represent most of the major lineage-specific gene copy number gains and losses that have occurred in these species over the past 60 million years. We analyzed 1,233,780 gene-to-gene data points and found that gene gains typically outnumbered losses (ratio of gains/losses = 2.34) and these frequently cluster in complex and dynamic genomic regions that are likely to serve as gene nurseries. Almost one-third of all human genes (6696) exhibit an aCGH- predicted change in copy number in one or more of these species, and within-species gene amplification is also evident. Many of the genes identified here are likely to be important to lineage-specific traits including, for example, human-specific duplications of the AQP7 gene, which represent intriguing candidates to underlie the key physiological adaptations in thermoregulation and energy utilization that permitted human endurance running.
- Korbel JO et al.
- Systematic prediction and validation of breakpoints associated with copy-number variants in the human genome.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104: 10110-5
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Copy-number variants (CNVs) are an abundant form of genetic variation in humans. However, approaches for determining exact CNV breakpoint sequences (physical deletion or duplication boundaries) across individuals, crucial for associating genotype to phenotype, have been lacking so far, and the vast majority of CNVs have been reported with approximate genomic coordinates only. Here, we report an approach, called BreakPtr, for fine-mapping CNVs (available from http://breakptr.gersteinlab.org). We statistically integrate both sequence characteristics and data from high-resolution comparative genome hybridization experiments in a discrete-valued, bivariate hidden Markov model. Incorporation of nucleotide-sequence information allows us to take into account the fact that recently duplicated sequences (e.g., segmental duplications) often coincide with breakpoints. In anticipation of an upcoming increase in CNV data, we developed an iterative, "active" approach to initially scoring with a preliminary model, performing targeted validations, retraining the model, and then rescoring, and a flexible parameterization system that intuitively collapses from a full model of 2,503 parameters to a core one of only 10. Using our approach, we accurately mapped >400 breakpoints on chromosome 22 and a region of chromosome 11, refining the boundaries of many previously approximately mapped CNVs. Four predicted breakpoints flanked known disease-associated deletions. We validated an additional four predicted CNV breakpoints by sequencing. Overall, our results suggest a predictive resolution of approximately 300 bp. This level of resolution enables more precise correlations between CNVs and across individuals than previously possible, allowing the study of CNV population frequencies. Further, it enabled us to demonstrate a clear Mendelian pattern of inheritance for one of the CNVs.
- Babcock M et al.
- Hominoid lineage specific amplification of low-copy repeats on 22q11.2 (LCR22s) associated with velo-cardio-facial/digeorge syndrome.
- Hum Mol Genet. 2007; 16: 2560-71
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Segmental duplications or low-copy repeats (LCRs) constitute approximately 5% of the sequenced portion of the human genome and are associated with many human congenital anomaly disorders. The low-copy repeats on chromosome 22q11.2 (LCR22s) mediate chromosomal rearrangements resulting in deletions, duplications and translocations. The evolutionary mechanisms leading to LCR22 formation is unknown. Four genes, USP18, BCR, GGTLA and GGT, map adjacent to the LCR22s and pseudogene copies are located within them. It has been hypothesized that gene duplication occurred during primate evolution, followed by recombination events, forming pseudogene copies. We investigated whether gene duplication could be detected in non-human hominoid species. FISH mapping was performed using probes to the four functional gene loci. There was evidence for a single copy in humans but additional copies in hominoid species. We then compared LCR22 copy number using LCR22 FISH probes. Lineage specific LCR22 variation was detected in the hominoid species supporting the hypothesis. To independently validate initial findings, real time PCR, and screening of gorilla BAC library filters were performed. This was compared to array comparative genome hybridization data available. The most striking finding was a dramatic amplification of LCR22s in the gorilla. The LCR22s localized to the telomeric or subtelomeric bands of gorilla chromosomes. The most parsimonious explanation is that the LCR22s became amplified by inter-chromosomal recombination between telomeric bands. In summary, our results are consistent with a lineage specific coupling between gene and LCR22 duplication events. The LCR22s thus serve as an important model for evolution of genome variation.
- Vandepoele K, Van Roy N, Staes K, Speleman F, van Roy F
- A novel gene family NBPF: intricate structure generated by gene duplications during primate evolution.
- Mol Biol Evol. 2005; 22: 2265-74
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Partial and complete genome duplications occurred during evolution and resulted in the creation of new genes and gene families. We identified a novel and intricate human gene family located primarily in regions of segmental duplications on human chromosome 1. We named it NBPF, for neuroblastoma breakpoint family, because one of its members is disrupted by a chromosomal translocation in a neuroblastoma patient. The NBPF genes have a repetitive structure with high intragenic and intergenic sequence similarity in both coding and noncoding regions. These similarities might expose these genomic regions to illegitimate recombination, resulting in structural variation in the NBPF genes. The encoded proteins contain a highly conserved domain of unknown function, which we have named the NBPF repeat. In silico analysis combined with the isolation of multiple full-length cDNA clones showed that several members of this gene family are abundantly expressed in a large variety of tissues and cell lines. Strikingly, no discernable orthologues could be identified in the completed genomes of fruit fly, nematode, mouse, or rat, but sequences with low homology could be isolated from the draft canine and bovine genomes. Interestingly, this gene family shows primate-specific duplications that result in species-specific arrays of NBPF homologous sequences. Overall, this novel NBPF family reflects the continuous evolution of primate genomes that resulted in large physiological differences, and its potential role in this process is discussed.
- Rakic P
- A small step for the cell, a giant leap for mankind: a hypothesis of neocortical expansion during evolution.
- Trends Neurosci. 1995; 18: 383-8
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The more than 1000-fold increase in the cortical surface without a comparable increase in its thickness during mammalian evolution is explained in the context of the radial-unit hypothesis of cortical development. According to the proposed model, cortical expansion is the result of changes in proliferation kinetics that increase the number of radial columnar units without changing the number of neurons within each unit significantly. Thus, mutation of a regulatory gene(s) that controls the timing and ratio of symmetric and asymmetric modes of cell divisions in the proliferative zone, coupled with radial constraints in the distribution of migrating neurons, could create an expanded cortical plate with enhanced capacity for establishing new patterns of connectivity that are validated through natural selection.