Secondary literature sources for NEUZ
The following references were automatically generated.
- Zhu Q, Deng Y, Vanka P, Brown SJ, Muthukrishnan S, Kramer KJ
- Computational identification of novel chitinase-like proteins in the Drosophila melanogaster genome.
- Bioinformatics. 2004; 20: 161-9
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MOTIVATION: Multiple chitinases as well as lectins closely related to them have been characterized previously from many insect species and the corresponding genes/cDNAs have been cloned. However, the identification of the entire assortment of genes for chitinase family proteins and their differences in biochemical properties have not been carried out in any individual insect species. The completion of the entire DNA sequence of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) genome and identification of open reading frames presents an opportunity to study the structures and functions of chitinase-like proteins, and also to identify new members of this family in DROSOPHILA: We are, therefore, interested in studying the functional genomics of chitinase-like gene families in insects. METHODS: We searched the Drosophila protein sequences database using fully characterized insect chitinase sequences and BLASTP software, identified all the putative chitinase-like proteins encoded in Drosophila genome, and predicted their structures using domain analysis tools. A phylogenetic analysis of the chitinase-like proteins from Drosophila and several other insect species was carried out. The structures of these chitinases were modeled using homology modeling software. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed the presence of 18 chitinase-like proteins in the Drosophila protein database. Among these are seven novel chitinase-like proteins that contain four signature amino acid sequences of chitinases belonging to family 18 glycosylhydrolases, including both acidic and hydrophobic amino acid residues critical for enzyme activity. All the proteins contain at least one catalytic domain with one having four catalytic domains. Phylogenetic analysis of chitinase-like proteins from Drosophila and other insects revealed an evolutionary relationship among all these proteins, which indicated gene duplication and domain shuffling to generate the observed diversity in the encoded proteins. Homology modeling showed that all the Drosophila chitinase-like proteins contain one or more catalytic domains with a (alpha/beta)8 barrel-like structure. Our results suggest that insects utilize multiple family 18 chitinolytic enzymes and also non-enzymatic chitinase-like proteins for degrading/remodeling/binding to chitin in different insect anatomical extracellular structures, such as the cuticle, peritrophic membrane, trachea and mouth parts during insect development, and possibly for other roles including chitin synthesis. AVAILABILITY: Perl program and supplementary material are available at http://www.ksu.edu/bioinformatics/supplementary.htm
- Zelensky AN, Gready JE
- C-type lectin-like domains in Fugu rubripes.
- BMC Genomics. 2004; 5: 51-51
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BACKGROUND: Members of the C-type lectin domain (CTLD) superfamily are metazoan proteins functionally important in glycoprotein metabolism, mechanisms of multicellular integration and immunity. Three genome-level studies on human, C. elegans and D. melanogaster reported previously demonstrated almost complete divergence among invertebrate and mammalian families of CTLD-containing proteins (CTLDcps). RESULTS: We have performed an analysis of CTLD family composition in Fugu rubripes using the draft genome sequence. The results show that all but two groups of CTLDcps identified in mammals are also found in fish, and that most of the groups have the same members as in mammals. We failed to detect representatives for CTLD groups V (NK cell receptors) and VII (lithostathine), while the DC-SIGN subgroup of group II is overrepresented in Fugu. Several new CTLD-containing genes, highly conserved between Fugu and human, were discovered using the Fugu genome sequence as a reference, including a CSPG family member and an SCP-domain-containing soluble protein. A distinct group of soluble dual-CTLD proteins has been identified, which may be the first reported CTLDcp group shared by invertebrates and vertebrates. We show that CTLDcp-encoding genes are selectively duplicated in Fugu, in a manner that suggests an ancient large-scale duplication event. We have verified 32 gene structures and predicted 63 new ones, and make our annotations available through a distributed annotation system (DAS) server http://anz.anu.edu.au:8080/Fugu_rubripes/ and their sequences as additional files with this paper. CONCLUSIONS: The vertebrate CTLDcp family was essentially formed early in vertebrate evolution and is completely different from the invertebrate families. Comparison of fish and mammalian genomes revealed three groups of CTLDcps and several new members of the known groups, which are highly conserved between fish and mammals, but were not identified in the study using only mammalian genomes. Despite limitations of the draft sequence, the Fugu rubripes genome is a powerful instrument for gene discovery and vertebrate evolutionary analysis. The composition of the CTLDcp superfamily in fish and mammals suggests that large-scale duplication events played an important role in the evolution of vertebrates.
- Aravind L, Iyer LM, Leipe DD, Koonin EV
- A novel family of P-loop NTPases with an unusual phyletic distribution and transmembrane segments inserted within the NTPase domain.
- Genome Biol. 2004; 5: 30-30
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BACKGROUND: Recent sequence-structure studies on P-loop-fold NTPases have substantially advanced the existing understanding of their evolution and functional diversity. These studies provide a framework for characterization of novel lineages within this fold and prediction of their functional properties. RESULTS: Using sequence profile searches and homology-based structure prediction, we have identified a previously uncharacterized family of P-loop NTPases, which includes the neuronal membrane protein and receptor tyrosine kinase substrate Kidins220/ARMS, which is conserved in animals, the F-plasmid PifA protein involved in phage T7 exclusion, and several uncharacterized bacterial proteins. We refer to these (predicted) NTPases as the KAP family, after Kidins220/ARMS and PifA. The KAP family NTPases are sporadically distributed across a wide phylogenetic range in bacteria but among the eukaryotes are represented only in animals. Many of the prokaryotic KAP NTPases are encoded in plasmids and tend to undergo disruption to form pseudogenes. A unique feature of all eukaryotic and certain bacterial KAP NTPases is the presence of two or four transmembrane helices inserted into the P-loop NTPase domain. These transmembrane helices anchor KAP NTPases in the membrane such that the P-loop domain is located on the intracellular side. We show that the KAP family belongs to the same major division of the P-loop NTPase fold with the AAA+, ABC, RecA-like, VirD4-like, PilT-like, and AP/NACHT-like NTPase classes. In addition to the KAP family, we identified another small family of predicted bacterial NTPases, with two transmembrane helices inserted into the P-loop domain. This family is not specifically related to the KAP NTPases, suggesting independent acquisition of the transmembrane helices. CONCLUSIONS: We predict that KAP family NTPases function principally in the NTP-dependent dynamics of protein complexes, especially those associated with the intracellular surface of cell membranes. Animal KAP NTPases, including Kidins220/ARMS, are likely to function as NTP-dependent regulators of the assembly of membrane-associated signaling complexes involved in neurite growth and development. One possible function of the prokaryotic KAP NTPases might be in the exclusion of selfish replicons, such as viruses, from the host cells. Phylogenetic analysis and phyletic patterns suggest that the common ancestor of the animals acquired a KAP NTPase via lateral transfer from bacteria. However, an earlier transfer into eukaryotes followed by multiple losses in several eukaryotic lineages cannot be ruled out.
- Storm CE, Sonnhammer EL
- Comprehensive analysis of orthologous protein domains using the HOPS database.
- Genome Res. 2003; 13: 2353-62
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One of the most reliable methods for protein function annotation is to transfer experimentally known functions from orthologous proteins in other organisms. Most methods for identifying orthologs operate on a subset of organisms with a completely sequenced genome, and treat proteins as single-domain units. However, it is well known that proteins are often made up of several independent domains, and there is a wealth of protein sequences from genomes that are not completely sequenced. A comprehensive set of protein domain families is found in the Pfam database. We wanted to apply orthology detection to Pfam families, but first some issues needed to be addressed. First, orthology detection becomes impractical and unreliable when too many species are included. Second, shorter domains contain less information. It is therefore important to assess the quality of the orthology assignment and avoid very short domains altogether. We present a database of orthologous protein domains in Pfam called HOPS: Hierarchical grouping of Orthologous and Paralogous Sequences. Orthology is inferred in a hierarchic system of phylogenetic subgroups using ortholog bootstrapping. To avoid the frequent errors stemming from horizontally transferred genes in bacteria, the analysis is presently limited to eukaryotic genes. The results are accessible in the graphical browser NIFAS, a Java tool originally developed for analyzing phylogenetic relations within Pfam families. The method was tested on a set of curated orthologs with experimentally verified function. In comparison to tree reconciliation with a complete species tree, our approach finds significantly more orthologs in the test set. Examples for investigating gene fusions and domain recombination using HOPS are given.
- Prag S, Adams JC
- Molecular phylogeny of the kelch-repeat superfamily reveals an expansion of BTB/kelch proteins in animals.
- BMC Bioinformatics. 2003; 4: 42-42
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BACKGROUND: The kelch motif is an ancient and evolutionarily-widespread sequence motif of 44-56 amino acids in length. It occurs as five to seven repeats that form a beta-propeller tertiary structure. Over 28 kelch-repeat proteins have been sequenced and functionally characterised from diverse organisms spanning from viruses, plants and fungi to mammals and it is evident from expressed sequence tag, domain and genome databases that many additional hypothetical proteins contain kelch-repeats. In general, kelch-repeat beta-propellers are involved in protein-protein interactions, however the modest sequence identity between kelch motifs, the diversity of domain architectures, and the partial information on this protein family in any single species, all present difficulties to developing a coherent view of the kelch-repeat domain and the kelch-repeat protein superfamily. To understand the complexity of this superfamily of proteins, we have analysed by bioinformatics the complement of kelch-repeat proteins encoded in the human genome and have made comparisons to the kelch-repeat proteins encoded in other sequenced genomes. RESULTS: We identified 71 kelch-repeat proteins encoded in the human genome, whereas 5 or 8 members were identified in yeasts and around 18 in C. elegans, D. melanogaster and A. gambiae. Multiple domain architectures were identified in each organism, including previously unrecognised forms. The vast majority of kelch-repeat domains are predicted to form six-bladed beta-propellers. The most prevalent domain architecture in the metazoan animal genomes studied was the BTB/kelch domain organisation and we uncovered 3 subgroups of human BTB/kelch proteins. Sequence analysis of the kelch-repeat domains of the most robustly-related subgroups identified differences in beta-propeller organisation that could provide direction for experimental study of protein-binding characteristics. CONCLUSION: The kelch-repeat superfamily constitutes a distinct and evolutionarily-widespread family of beta-propeller domain-containing proteins. Expansion of the family during the evolution of multicellular animals is mainly accounted for by a major expansion of the BTB/kelch domain architecture. BTB/kelch proteins constitute 72 % of the kelch-repeat superfamily of H. sapiens and form three subgroups, one of which appears the most-conserved during evolution. Distinctions in propeller blade organisation between subgroups 1 and 2 were identified that could provide new direction for biochemical and functional studies of novel kelch-repeat proteins.