Secondary literature sources for PAX
The following references were automatically generated.
- Jun S, Desplan C
- Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain.
- Development. 1996; 122: 2639-50
- Display abstract
The Pax proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators involved in many developmental processes in all higher eukaryotes. They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains. The PD is also often associated with a homeodomain (HD) which is itself able to form homo- and hetero-dimers on DNA. Many of these proteins therefore contain three HTH motifs each able to recognize DNA. However, all PDs recognize highly related DNA sequences, and most HDs also recognize almost identical sites. We show here that different Pax proteins use multiple combinations of their HTHs to recognize several types of target sites. For instance, the Drosophila Paired protein can bind, in vitro, exclusively through its PAI domain, or through a dimer of its HD, or through cooperative interaction between PAI domain and HD. However, prd function in vivo requires the synergistic action of both the PAI domain and the HD. Pax proteins with only a PD appear to require both PAI and RED domains, while a Pax-6 isoform and a new Pax protein, Lune, may rely on the RED domain and HD. We propose a model by which Pax proteins recognize different target genes in vivo through various combinations of their DNA binding domains, thus expanding their recognition repertoire.
- Underhill DA, Vogan KJ, Gros P
- Analysis of the mouse Splotch-delayed mutation indicates that the Pax-3 paired domain can influence homeodomain DNA-binding activity.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995; 92: 3692-6
- Display abstract
The murine Pax-3 protein contains two DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain, and alterations in the Pax-3 gene are responsible for the neural tube defects observed in the Splotch (Sp) mouse mutant. Of five Sp alleles, Splotch-delayed (Spd) is the only one that encodes a full-length Pax-3 protein, containing a single glycine-to-arginine substitution within the paired domain. To better understand the consequence of this mutation on Pax-3 function, we have analyzed the DNA-binding properties of wild-type and Spd Pax-3, using oligonucleotides that bind primarily to the paired domain (e5) or exclusively to the homeodomain (P2). Wild-type Pax-3 was found to bind e5 in a specific manner. In contrast, the Spd mutation reduced binding of Pax-3 to e5 17-fold, revealing a defect in DNA binding by the paired domain. Surprisingly, the Spd mutation also drastically reduced the homeodomain-specific binding to P2 by 21-fold when compared with the wild-type protein. Interestingly, a deletion which removes the Spd mutation was found to restore P2-binding activity, suggesting that within the full-length Pax-3 protein, the paired domain and homeodomain may interact. We conclude, therefore, that the Spd mutation is phenotyically expressed in vitro by a defect in the DNA-binding properties of Pax-3. Furthermore, it is apparent that the paired domain and homeodomain of Pax-3 do not function as independent domains, since a mutation in the former impairs the DNA-binding activity of the latter.
- Epstein J, Cai J, Glaser T, Jepeal L, Maas R
- Identification of a Pax paired domain recognition sequence and evidence for DNA-dependent conformational changes.
- J Biol Chem. 1994; 269: 8355-61
- Display abstract
Pax genes encode a family of developmentally regulated transcription factors that have been implicated in a number of human and murine congenital disorders, as well as in tumorigenesis (Gruss, P., and Walther, C. (1992) Cell 69, 719-722; Hill, R., and van Heyningen, V. (1992) Trends Genet. 8, 119-120; Chalepakis, G., Tremblay, P., and Gruss, P. (1992) J. Cell Sci. Suppl. 16, 61-67; Maulbecker, C. C., and Gruss, P. (1993) EMBO J. 12, 2361-2367; Walther, C., Guenet, J. L., Simon, D., Deutsch, U., Jostes, B., Goulding, M. D., Plachov, D., Balling, R., and Gruss, P. (1991) Genomics 11, 424-434; Barr, R. G., Galili, N., Holick, J., Biegel, J. A., Rovera, G., and Emanuel, B. S. (1993) Nature Genet. 3, 113-117). These genes are defined by the presence of an evolutionarily conserved DNA binding domain, termed the paired domain. The structure and the DNA binding characteristics of the paired domain remain largely unknown. We have utilized repetitive rounds of a polymerase chain reaction-based selection method to identify the optimal DNA binding sequences for the Pax-2 and Pax-6 paired domains. The results suggest that the paired domain family of peptides bind similar DNA sequences. Identification of this binding site has revealed an important structural clue regarding the mechanism of paired domain binding to DNA. CD and NMR structural analyses of the purified Pax-6 paired domain reveal it to be largely structureless in solution. Upon binding the recognition sequence, the complex becomes markedly less soluble and displays CD spectroscopic evidence of significant alpha-helical structure.
- Cai J, Lan Y, Appel LF, Weir M
- Dissection of the Drosophila paired protein: functional requirements for conserved motifs.
- Mech Dev. 1994; 47: 139-50
- Display abstract
The Drosophila paired gene encodes three conserved motifs: a homeodomain, paired domain and PRD (his/pro) repeat. To investigate the functional importance of the PRD repeat and paired domain, we tested deletion mutants using an ectopic expression assay in embryos. Our results suggest that the PRD repeat is not required for the in vivo regulation of the target genes, engrailed and gooseberry. However, the PRD repeat appears to be embedded within a proline-rich transcriptional activation domain required for the regulation of these genes. Our analysis of the paired domain indicated that its N-terminal half, which is required for DNA binding in vitro, is also required for in vivo function, whereas surprisingly, the C-terminal half is dispensable for the regulation of engrailed and gooseberry.
- Li X, Noll M
- Evolution of distinct developmental functions of three Drosophila genes by acquisition of different cis-regulatory regions.
- Nature. 1994; 367: 83-7
- Display abstract
It is generally accepted that the specific function of a gene depends on its coding sequence. The three paired-box and homeobox genes paired (prd), gooseberry (gsb) and gooseberry neuro (gsbn) have distinct developmental functions in Drosophila embryogenesis. During the syncytial blastoderm stage, the pair-rule gene prd activates segment-polarity genes, such as gsb, wingless (wg), and engrailed (en), in segmentally repeated stripes. After germ-band extension, gsb maintains the expression of wg, which in turn specifies the denticle pattern by repressing a default state of ubiquitous denticle formation in the ventral epidermis. In addition, gsb activates gsbn, which is expressed mainly in the central nervous system, suggesting that gsbn is involved in neural development. Here we show that, despite the functional difference and the considerably diverged coding sequence of these genes, their proteins have conserved the same function. The finding that the essential difference between genes may reside in their cis-regulatory regions exemplifies an important evolutionary mechanism of how function diversifies after gene duplication.
- Treisman J, Harris E, Desplan C
- The paired box encodes a second DNA-binding domain in the paired homeo domain protein.
- Genes Dev. 1991; 5: 594-604
- Display abstract
The homeo box, which encodes the DNA-binding homeo domain, is a DNA sequence motif present in several Drosophila developmental genes; it has been used to identify many homologous genes involved in mammalian development. The paired box is another conserved sequence motif, first identified in the paired (prd) and gooseberry (gsb) Drosophila homeo domain genes. It encodes a 128-amino-acid domain, the paired domain, which has since been found in other fly and mouse gene products, in association with the homeo domain or in its absence. We show that the paired box of the prd gene encodes a DNA-binding activity, independent of the DNA-binding activity of the Paired (Prd) homeo domain and with a different sequence specificity. The amino-terminal region of the paired domain, including one of the three predicted alpha-helices, is necessary and sufficient for binding. We investigate the binding of the Prd protein to two sites in the even-skipped promoter, which are composed of overlapping sequences bound by the homeo domain and by the paired domain. We also show that a mutation in the paired box of Prd, corresponding to the mutation in the paired box of the mouse Pax-1 gene thought to cause the undulated skeletal phenotype, destroys the ability of the Prd protein to bind to the paired domain-specific site. This supports the view that the undulated phenotype results from the inactivation of the DNA-binding activity of the paired domain of Pax-1.