Secondary literature sources for PI3K_C2
The following references were automatically generated.
- Caron RW et al.
- Activated forms of H-RAS and K-RAS differentially regulate membrane association of PI3K, PDK-1, and AKT and the effect of therapeutic kinase inhibitors on cell survival.
- Mol Cancer Ther. 2005; 4: 257-70
- Display abstract
The abilities of mutated active RAS proteins to modulate cell survival following exposure to ionizing radiation and small molecule kinase inhibitors were examined. Homologous recombination in HCT116 cells to delete the single allele of K-RAS D13 resulted in a cell line that exhibited an approximately 75% reduction in basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, AKT, and c-jun-NH2-kinase 1/2 activity. Transfection of cells lacking K-RAS D13 with H-RAS V12 restored extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT activity to basal levels but did not restore c-jun-NH2-kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. In cells expressing H-RAS V12, radiation caused prolonged intense activation of AKT. Inhibition of H-RAS V12 function, blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) function using small interfering RNA/small-molecule inhibitors, or expression of dominant-negative AKT abolished radiation-induced AKT activation, and radiosensitized these cells. Inhibition of PI3K function did not significantly radiosensitize parental HCT116 cells. Inhibitors of the AKT PH domain including perifosine, SH-(5, 23-25) and ml-(14-16) reduced the plating efficiency of H-RAS V12 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Inhibition of AKT function using perifosine enhanced radiosensitivity in H-RAS V12 cells, whereas the SH and ml series of AKT PH domain inhibitors failed to promote radiation toxicity. In HCT116 H-RAS V12 cells, PI3K, PDK-1, and AKT were membrane associated, whereas in parental cells expressing K-RAS D13, only PDK-1 was membrane bound. In H-RAS V12 cells, membrane associated PDK-1 was phosphorylated at Y373/376, which was abolished by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2. Inhibition of PDK-1 function using the PH domain inhibitor OSU-03012 or using PP2 reduced the plating efficiency of H-RAS V12 cells and profoundly increased radiosensitivity. OSU-03012 and PP2 did not radiosensitize and had modest inhibitory effects on plating efficiency in parental cells. A small interfering RNA generated against PDK1 also radiosensitized HCT116 cells expressing H-RAS V12. Collectively, our data argue that molecular inhibition of AKT and PDK-1 signaling enhances the radiosensitivity of HCT116 cells expressing H-RAS V12 but not K-RAS D13. Small-molecule inhibitory agents that blocked stimulated and/or basal PDK-1 and AKT function profoundly reduced HCT116 cell survival but had variable effects at enhancing tumor cell radiosensitivity.
- Oudit GY, Sun H, Kerfant BG, Crackower MA, Penninger JM, Backx PH
- The role of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and PTEN in cardiovascular physiology and disease.
- J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004; 37: 449-71
- Display abstract
Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of evolutionary conserved lipid kinases that mediate many cellular responses in both physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Class I PI3K can be activated by either receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/cytokine receptor activation (class I(A)) or G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) (class I(B)). Once activated PI3Ks generate phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns) (3,4,5)P(3) leading to the recruitment and activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), PDK1 and monomeric G-proteins (e.g. Rac-GTPases), which then activate a range of downstream targets including glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6 kinase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and several anti-apoptotic effectors. Class I(A) (PI3Kalpha, beta and delta) and class I(B) (PI3Kgamma) PI3Ks mediate distinct phenotypes in the heart and under negative control by the 3'-lipid phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) which dephosphorylate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) into PtdIns(4,5)P(2). PI3Kalpha, gamma and PTEN are expressed in cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells where they modulate cell survival/apoptosis, hypertrophy, contractility, metabolism and mechanotransduction. Several transgenic and knockout models support a fundamental role of PI3K/PTEN signaling in the regulation of myocardial contractility and hypertrophy. Consequently the PI3K/PTEN signaling pathways are involved in a wide variety of diseases including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, preconditioning and hypertension. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry and molecular biology of PI3K (class I isoforms) and PTEN and their critical role in cardiovascular physiology and diseases.
- Lei J, Mariash CN, Ingbar DH
- 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine up-regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and cell surface expression in alveolar epithelial cells is Src kinase- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent.
- J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 47589-600
- Display abstract
We previously reported that thyroid hormone, 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), increased Na,K-ATPase activity of adult rat alveolar epithelial cells in a transcription-independent manner via increased cell surface expression of the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of Na,K-ATPase. Now we sought to identify signaling molecules necessary for T3 stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity in alveolar epithelial cells. Whereas protein kinase A inhibitor H-8 and protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolymaleimide did not block the T3-induced increase in Na,K-ATPase activity, two inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), wortmannin and Ly294002, and two Src kinase inhibitors, PP1 and PP2, blocked the T3-induced Na,K-ATPase activity. T3 stimulated the activity of PI3K as measured by phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. T3 also stimulated the serine 473 phosphorylation of the PI3K downstream molecule PKB/Akt in a dose-dependent manner. Transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110 augmented Na,K-ATPase activity and increased the amount of cell surface Na,K-ATPase alpha(1) subunit protein. T3 also stimulated Src family kinase activity. Transient expression of a constitutively active Src kinase increased Na,K-ATPase activity, PI3K activity, and phosphorylation of PKB/Akt at serine 473. PP1 or PP2 blocked T3-stimulated PKB/Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and PI3K activity that was activated by an active mutant of Src; however, wortmannin did not inhibit the T3-stimulated Src kinase activity. Although PP1 and wortmannin abolished the increase in Na,K-ATPase activity induced by the active mutant of Src, PP1 did not inhibit the active mutant of PI3K-up-regulated Na,K-ATPase activity. In summary, T3 stimulates the PI3K/PKB pathway via the Src family of tyrosine kinases, and activation of both the Src family kinases and PI3K is required for the T3-induced stimulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and its cell surface expression in adult rat alveolar epithelial cells.
- Gonzalez B, Schell MJ, Letcher AJ, Veprintsev DB, Irvine RF, Williams RL
- Structure of a human inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase: substrate binding reveals why it is not a phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
- Mol Cell. 2004; 15: 689-701
- Display abstract
Mammalian cells produce a variety of inositol phosphates (InsPs), including Ins(1,4,5)P3 that serves both as a second messenger and as a substrate for inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPKs), which further phosphorylate it. We report the structure of an IPK, the human Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase-A, both free and in complexes with substrates and products. This enzyme catalyzes transfer of a phosphate from ATP to the 3-OH of Ins(1,4,5)P3, and its X-ray crystal structure provides a template for understanding a broad family of InsP kinases. The catalytic domain consists of three lobes. The N and C lobes bind ATP and resemble protein and lipid kinases, despite insignificant sequence similarity. The third lobe binds inositol phosphate and is a unique four-helix insertion in the C lobe. This lobe embraces all of the phosphates of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in a positively charged pocket, explaining the enzyme's substrate specificity and its inability to phosphorylate PtdIns(4,5)P2, the membrane-resident analog of Ins(1,4,5)P3.
- Miron M, Lasko P, Sonenberg N
- Signaling from Akt to FRAP/TOR targets both 4E-BP and S6K in Drosophila melanogaster.
- Mol Cell Biol. 2003; 23: 9117-26
- Display abstract
The eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) interact with translation initiation factor 4E to inhibit translation. Their binding to eIF4E is reversed by phosphorylation of several key Ser/Thr residues. In Drosophila, S6 kinase (dS6K) and a single 4E-BP (d4E-BP) are phosphorylated via the insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathways. Although S6K phosphorylation is independent of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, that of 4E-BP is dependent on PI3K and Akt. This difference prompted us to examine the regulation of d4E-BP in greater detail. Analysis of d4E-BP phosphorylation using site-directed mutagenesis and isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the regulatory interplay between Thr37 and Thr46 of d4E-BP is conserved in flies and that phosphorylation of Thr46 is the major phosphorylation event that regulates d4E-BP activity. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to target components of the PI3K, Akt, and TOR pathways. RNAi experiments directed at components of the insulin and TOR signaling cascades show that d4E-BP is phosphorylated in a PI3K- and Akt-dependent manner. Surprisingly, RNAi of dAkt also affected insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of dS6K, indicating that dAkt may also play a role in dS6K phosphorylation.
- Carricaburu V et al.
- The phosphatidylinositol (PI)-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II enzyme controls insulin signaling by regulating PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate degradation.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100: 9867-72
- Display abstract
Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI-5-P) is a newly identified phosphoinositide with characteristics of a signaling lipid but no known cellular function. PI-5-P levels are controlled by the type II PI-5-P 4-kinases (PIP4K IIs), a family of kinases that converts PI-5-P into phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2). The PI-5-P pathway is an alternative route for PI-4,5-P2 synthesis as the bulk of this lipid is generated by the canonical pathway in which phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4-P) is the intermediate. Here we examined the effect of activation of the PI-5-P pathway on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling by expressing PIP4K II beta in cells that lack this enzyme. Although PIP4K II generates PI-4,5-P2, a substrate for PI3K, expression of this enzyme reduced rather than increased phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI-3,4,5-P3) levels in cells stimulated with insulin or cells expressing activated PI3K. This reduction in PI-3,4,5-P3 levels resulted in decreased activation of the downstream protein kinase, Akt/PKB. Consistent with these results, expression of IpgD, a bacterial phosphatase that converts PI-4,5-P2 to PI-5-P, resulted in Akt activation, and this effect was partially reversed by PIP4K II beta. PIP4K II beta expression did not impair insulin-dependent association of PI3K with insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) but abbreviated Akt activation, indicating that PIP4K II regulates PI-3,4,5-P3 degradation rather than synthesis. These data support a model in which the PI-5-P pathway controls insulin signaling that leads to Akt activation by regulating a PI-3,4,5-P3 phosphatase.
- Ozes ON et al.
- A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates and PTEN antagonizes tumor necrosis factor inhibition of insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate-1.
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98: 4640-5
- Display abstract
Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) by the insulin receptor permits this docking protein to interact with signaling proteins that promote insulin action. Serine phosphorylation uncouples IRS-1 from the insulin receptor, thereby inhibiting its tyrosine phosphorylation and insulin signaling. For this reason, there is great interest in identifying serine/threonine kinases for which IRS-1 is a substrate. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibited insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and activated the Akt/protein kinase B serine-threonine kinase, a downstream target for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). The effect of TNF on insulin-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was blocked by inhibition of PI 3-kinase and the PTEN tumor suppressor, which dephosphorylates the lipids that mediate PI 3-kinase functions, whereas constitutively active Akt impaired insulin-promoted IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Conversely, TNF inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by kinase dead Akt. Inhibition of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by TNF was blocked by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of Akt. mTOR induced the serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser-636/639), and such phosphorylation was inhibited by rapamycin. These results suggest that TNF impairs insulin signaling through IRS-1 by activation of a PI 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is antagonized by PTEN.
- Carballada R, Yasuo H, Lemaire P
- Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase acts in parallel to the ERK MAP kinase in the FGF pathway during Xenopus mesoderm induction.
- Development. 2001; 128: 35-44
- Display abstract
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that can phosphorylate phosphaditylinositides leading to the cell type-specific regulation of intracellular protein kinases. PI3Ks are involved in a wide variety of cellular events including mitogenic signalling, regulation of growth and survival, vesicular trafficking, and control of the cytoskeleton. Some of these enzymes also act downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases or G-protein-coupled receptors. Using two strategies to inhibit PI3K signalling in embryos, we have analysed the role of PI3Ks during early Xenopus development. We find that a class 1A PI3K catalytic activity is required for the definition of trunk mesoderm during the blastula stages, but is less important for endoderm and prechordal plate mesoderm induction or for organiser formation. It is required in the FGF signalling pathway downstream of Ras and in parallel to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAP kinases. In addition, our results show that ERKs and PI3Ks can synergise to convert ectoderm into mesoderm. These data provide the first evidence that class 1 PI3Ks are required for a specific set of patterning events in vertebrate embryos. Furthermore, they bring new insight into the FGF signalling cascade in Xenopus.
- Pirola L, Zvelebil MJ, Bulgarelli-Leva G, Van Obberghen E, Waterfield MD, Wymann MP
- Activation loop sequences confer substrate specificity to phosphoinositide 3-kinase alpha (PI3Kalpha ). Functions of lipid kinase-deficient PI3Kalpha in signaling.
- J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 21544-54
- Display abstract
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are dual specificity lipid and protein kinases. While the lipid-dependent PI3K downstream signaling is well characterized, little is known about PI3K protein kinase signaling and structural determinants of lipid substrate specificity across the various PI3K classes. Here we show that sequences C-terminal to the PI3K ATP-binding site determine the lipid substrate specificity of the class IA PI3Kalpha (p85/p110alpha). Transfer of such activation loop sequences from class II PI3Ks, class III PI3Ks, and a related mammalian target of rapamycin (FRAP) into p110alpha turns the lipid substrate specificity of the resulting hybrid protein into that of the donor protein, while leaving the protein kinase activity unaffected. All resulting hybrids lacked the ability to produce phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in intact cells. Amino acid substitutions and structure modeling showed that two conserved positively charged (Lys and Arg) residues in the activation loop are crucial for the functionality of class I PI3Ks as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate kinases. By transient transfecion of 293 cells, we show that p110alpha hybrids, although unable to support lipid-dependent PI3K signaling, such as activation of protein kinase B/Akt and p70(S6k), retain the capability to associate with and phosphorylate insulin receptor substrate-1, with the same specificity and higher efficacy than wild type PI3Kalpha. Our data lay the basis for the understanding of the class I PI3K substrate selectivity and for the use of PI3Kalpha hybrids to dissect PI3Kalpha function as lipid and protein kinase.
- Yart A et al.
- A critical role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase upstream of Gab1 and SHP2 in the activation of ras and mitogen-activated protein kinases by epidermal growth factor.
- J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 8856-64
- Display abstract
Although the mechanisms involved in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) by receptor tyrosine kinases do not display an obvious role for phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), we have observed in the nontransformed cell line Vero stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) that wortmannin and LY294002 nearly abolished MAPK activation. The effect was observed under strong stimulation and was independent of EGF concentration. In addition, three mutants of class Ia PI3Ks were found to inhibit MAPK activation to an extent similar to their effect on Akt/protein kinase B activation. To determine the importance of PI3K lipid kinase activity in MAPK activation, we have used the phosphatase PTEN and the pleckstrin homology domain of Tec kinase. Overexpression of these proteins, but not control mutants, was found to inhibit MAPK activation, suggesting that the lipid products of class Ia PI3K are necessary for MAPK signaling. We next investigated the location of PI3K in the MAPK cascade. Pharmacological inhibitors and dominant negative forms of PI3K were found to block the activation of Ras induced by EGF. Upstream from Ras, although association of Grb2 with its conventional effectors was independent of PI3K, we have observed that the recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 required PI3K. Because SHP2 was also essential for Ras activation, this suggested the existence of a PI3K/SHP2 pathway leading to the activation of Ras. In addition, we have observed that the docking protein Gab1, which is involved in PI3K activation during EGF stimulation, is also implicated in this pathway downstream of PI3K. Indeed, the association of Gab1 with SHP2 was blocked by PI3K inhibitors, and expression of Gab1 mutant deficient for binding to SHP2 was found to inhibit Ras stimulation without interfering with PI3K activation. These results show that, in addition to Shc and Grb2, a PI3K-dependent pathway involving Gab1 and SHP2 is essential for Ras activation under EGF stimulation.
- Marshall AJ, Niiro H, Yun TJ, Clark EA
- Regulation of B-cell activation and differentiation by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase Cgamma pathway.
- Immunol Rev. 2000; 176: 30-46
- Display abstract
Signal transduction through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) determines the fate of B lymphocytes during their development and during immune responses. A multitude of signal transduction events are known to be activated by ligation of the BCR; however, the critical parameters determining the biological outcome of the signal transduction cascade are only just beginning to be understood. Two enzymes which act on plasma membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma), have been implicated as critical mediators of B-cell activation and differentiation signals. Activation of these ubiquitous enzymes is regulated by B-lymphocyte-specific signal transduction proteins, such as CD 19 and B-cell linker protein. These enzymes function by generating both membrane-anchored and soluble second messenger molecules which regulate the activity of downstream signal transduction proteins. Active PI3K produces phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) which can bind to signaling proteins such as Btk or Akt via their pleckstrin homology domains, resulting in their membrane recruitment and activation. The lipid phosphatases SHIP and PTEN negatively regulate production of PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,S)P3 and therefore function to put a "brake" on the PI3K pathway. Active PLCgamma produces inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, which regulates Ca2+ mobilization, and diacylglycerol, which binds to a subset of protein kinase C enzymes leading to their membrane localization and activation. Recent evidence has indicated that PLCgamma activation is partially dependent on the PI(3,4,5)P3 production by activated PI3K. Since PI3K and PLCgamma also share common downstream targets such as the NF-AT and NF-kappaB transcription factors, it is becoming clear that these two pathways are interconnected at several levels. Studies of mice deficient in components of the PI3K and PLCgamma pathways demonstrate that these pathways play critical roles in both pre-BCR and BCR-dependent selection events during B-cell differentiation. Taken together, the present data clearly indicate that PI3K and PLCgamma play critical and indispensable roles in the signal transduction cascades leading to multiple biological responses downstream of the BCR.
- Sekulic A et al.
- A direct linkage between the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway and the mammalian target of rapamycin in mitogen-stimulated and transformed cells.
- Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 3504-13
- Display abstract
The microbially derived antiproliferative agent rapamycin inhibits cell growth by interfering with the signaling functions of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In this study, we demonstrate that interleukin-3 stimulation induces a wortmannin-sensitive increase in mTOR kinase activity in a myeloid progenitor cell line. The involvement of phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K) in the regulation of mTOR activity was further suggested by findings that mTOR was phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by the PI3K-regulated protein kinase, AKT/PKB. Although AKT phosphorylated mTOR at two COOH-terminal sites (Thr2446 and Ser2448) in vitro, Ser2448 was the major phosphorylation site in insulin-stimulated or -activated AKT-expressing human embryonic kidney cells. Transient transfection assays with mTOR mutants bearing Ala substitutions at Ser2448 and/or Thr2446 indicated that AKT-dependent mTOR phosphorylation was not essential for either PHAS-I phosphorylation or p70S6K activation in HEK cells. However, a deletion of amino acids 2430-2450 in mTOR, which includes the potential AKT phosphorylation sites, significantly increased both the basal protein kinase activity and in vivo signaling functions of mTOR. These results demonstrate that mTOR is a direct target of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in mitogen-stimulated cells, and that the identified AKT phosphorylation sites are nested within a "repressor domain" that negatively regulates the catalytic activity of mTOR. Furthermore, the activation status of the PI3K-AKT pathway in cancer cells may be an important determinant of cellular sensitivity to the cytostatic effect of rapamycin.
- Vanhaesebroeck B, Alessi DR
- The PI3K-PDK1 connection: more than just a road to PKB.
- Biochem J. 2000; 346: 561-76
- Display abstract
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) generate specific inositol lipids that have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, survival, differentiation and cytoskeletal changes. One of the best characterized targets of PI3K lipid products is the protein kinase Akt or protein kinase B (PKB). In quiescent cells, PKB resides in the cytosol in a low-activity conformation. Upon cellular stimulation, PKB is activated through recruitment to cellular membranes by PI3K lipid products and phosphorylation by 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). Here we review the mechanism by which PKB is activated and the downstream actions of this multifunctional kinase. We also discuss the evidence that PDK1 may be involved in the activation of protein kinases other than PKB, the mechanisms by which this activity of PDK1 could be regulated and the possibility that some of the currently postulated PKB substrates targets might in fact be phosphorylated by PDK1-regulated kinases other than PKB.
- Gehrmann T, Heilmeyer LM Jr
- Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases.
- Eur J Biochem. 1998; 253: 357-70
- Display abstract
Polyphosphoinositides are involved in many signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. The first committed step is catalysed by phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase leading to the formation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. In the last four years, ten cDNA molecules have been cloned which code isoforms of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase; some of which are highly related. Characteristically, they contain a C-terminal catalytic domain which is similar to that of (poly)phosphoinositide 3-kinases and to that of more distantly related lipid/protein kinases. Alignment has characterised cDNAs from Chaenorabditis, Dictyostelium and Schizostaphyloccus pombe as those of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases also. All these lipid kinases are related to the superfamily of protein kinases. Several amino acids are highly conserved in catalytic domains of lipid and protein kinases. Employing the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase as template, these residues can be assigned functionally. On the basis of the alignment, a phylogenetic tree of the superfamily of phosphatidylinositol kinases has been constructed. Three families, the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinases, and the phosphatidylinositol related lipid/protein kinases, can be recognised. Each family comprises two subfamilies. The involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases in signal transduction processes is summarised and a new hypothesis for the function of their isoforms in polyphosphoinositide signalling is presented. The involvement of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases in formation of lipid-protein interactions with cytoskeleton proteins and the metabolism of polyphosphoinositide in the nucleus is discussed.
- Wymann MP, Pirola L
- Structure and function of phosphoinositide 3-kinases.
- Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998; 1436: 127-50
- Display abstract
Phosphoinositide kinases (PI3Ks) play an important role in mitogenic signaling and cell survival, cytoskeletal remodeling, metabolic control and vesicular trafficking. Here we summarize the structure-function relationships delineating the activation process of class I PI3Ks involving various domains of adapter subunits, Ras, and interacting proteins. The resulting product, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, targets Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), phosphoinositide-dependent kinases (PDK), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), atypical protein kinases C (PKC), phospholipase Cgamma and more. Surface receptor-activated PI3Ks function in mammals, insects, nematodes and slime mold, but not yeast. While many members of the class II family have been identified and characterized biochemically, it is presently unknown how these C2-domain containing PI3Ks are activated, and which PI substrate they phosphorylate in vivo. PtdIns 3-P is produced by Vps34p/class III PI3Ks and operates via the PtdIns 3-P-binding proteins early endosomal antigen (EEA1), yeast Vac1p, Vps27p, Pip1p in lysosomal protein targeting. Besides the production of D3 phosphorylated lipids, PI3Ks have an intrinsic protein kinase activity. For trimeric GTP-binding protein-activated PI3Kgamma, protein kinase activity seems to be sufficient to trigger mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Recent disruption of PI3K genes in slime mold, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mice further underlines the importance of PI3K signaling systems and elucidates the role of PI3K signaling in multicellular organisms.
- Linassier C, MacDougall LK, Domin J, Waterfield MD
- Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a Drosophila phosphatidylinositol-specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase.
- Biochem J. 1997; 321: 849-56
- Display abstract
Molecular, biochemical and genetic characterization of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have identified distinct classes of enzymes involved in processes mediated by activation of cell-surface receptors and in constitutive intracellular protein trafficking events. The latter process appears to involve a PtdIns-specific PI3K first described in yeast as a mutant, vps34, defective in the sorting of newly synthesized proteins from the Golgi to the vacuole. We have identified a representative member of each class of PI3Ks in Drosophila using a PCR-based approach. In the present paper we describe the molecular cloning of a PI3K from Drosophila, P13K_59F, that shows sequence similarity to Vps34. PI3K_59F encodes a protein of 108 kDa co-linear with Vps34 homologues, and with three regions of sequence similarity to other PI3Ks. Biochemical characterization of the enzyme, by expression of the complete coding sequence as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Sf9 cells, demonstrates that PI3K_59F is a PtdIns-specific PI3K that can utilize either Mg2+ or Mn2+. This activity is sensitive to inhibition both by non-ionic detergent (Nonidet P40) and by wortmannin (IC50 10 nM). PI3K_59F, therefore, conserves both the structural and biochemical properties of the Vps34 class of enzymes.
- Rubio I, Rodriguez-Viciana P, Downward J, Wetzker R
- Interaction of Ras with phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma.
- Biochem J. 1997; 326: 891-5
- Display abstract
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) can be activated in vitro by both alpha and betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins and does not interact with p85, the regulatory subunit of PI3Kalpha. Here we demonstrate the binding of Ras to PI3Kgamma in vitro. An N-terminal region of PI3Kgamma was identified as a binding site for Ras. After co-expression with PI3Kgamma in COS-7 cells, Ras induced only a modest increase in PI3K activity compared with the stimulation of PI3Kalpha by Ras in the same cells.