Secondary literature sources for POLAc
The following references were automatically generated.
- DeRose EF et al.
- Model for the catalytic domain of the proofreading epsilon subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III based on NMR structural data.
- Biochemistry. 2002; 41: 94-110
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The DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (HE) is the primary replicative polymerase of Escherichia coli. The epsilon subunit of the HE complex provides the 3'-exonucleolytic proofreading activity for this enzyme complex. epsilon consists of two domains: an N-terminal domain containing the proofreading exonuclease activity (residues 1-186) and a C-terminal domain required for binding to the polymerase (alpha) subunit (residues 187-243). Multidimensional NMR studies of (2)H-, (13)C-, and (15)N-labeled N-terminal domains (epsilon186) were performed to assign the backbone resonances and measure H(N)-H(N) nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs). NMR studies were also performed on triple-lableled [U-(2)H,(13)C,(15)N]epsilon186 containing Val, Leu, and Ile residues with protonated methyl groups, which allowed for the assignment of H(N)-CH(3) and CH(3)-CH(3) NOEs. Analysis of the (13)C(alpha), (13)C(beta), and (13)CO shifts, using chemical shift indexing and the TALOS program, allowed for the identification of regions of the secondary structure. H(N)-H(N) NOEs provided information on the assembly of the extended strands into a beta-sheet structure and confirmed the assignment of the alpha helices. Measurement of H(N)-CH(3) and CH(3)-CH(3) NOEs confirmed the beta-sheet structure and assisted in the positioning of the alpha helices. The resulting preliminary characterization of the three-dimensional structure of the protein indicated that significant structural homology exists with the active site of the Klenow proofreading exonuclease domain, despite the extremely limited sequence homology. On the basis of this analogy, molecular modeling studies of epsilon186 were performed using as templates the crystal structures of the exonuclease domains of the Klenow fragment and the T4 DNA polymerase and the recently determined structure of the E. coli Exonuclease I. A multiple sequence alignment was constructed, with the initial alignment taken from the previously published hidden Markov model and NMR constraints. Because several of the published structures included complexed ssDNA, we were also able to incorporate an A-C-G trinucleotide into the epsilon186 structure. Nearly all of the residues which have been identified as mutators are located in the portion of the molecule which binds the DNA, with most of these playing either a catalytic or structural role.
- Pelletier H, Sawaya MR, Wolfle W, Wilson SH, Kraut J
- Crystal structures of human DNA polymerase beta complexed with DNA: implications for catalytic mechanism, processivity, and fidelity.
- Biochemistry. 1996; 35: 12742-61
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Mammalian DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) is a small (39 kDa) DNA gap-filling enzyme that comprises an amino-terminal 8-kDa domain and a carboxy-terminal 31-kDa domain. In the work reported here, crystal structures of human pol beta complexed with blunt-ended segments of DNA show that, although the crystals belong to a different space group, the DNA is nevertheless bound in the pol beta binding channel in the same way as the DNA in previously reported structures of rat pol beta complexed with a template-primer and ddCTP [Pelletier, H., Sawaya, M. R., Kumar, A., Wilson, S. H., & Kraut, J. (1994) Science 264, 1891-1903]. The 8-kDa domain is in one of three previously observed positions relative to the 31-kDa domain, suggesting that the 8-kDa domain may assume only a small number of stable conformations. The thumb subdomain is in a more open position in the human pol beta-DNA binary complex than it is in the rat pol beta-DNA-ddCTP ternary complex, and a closing thumb upon nucleotide binding could represent the rate-limiting conformational change that has been observed in pre-steady-state kinetic studies. Intermolecular contacts between the DNA and the 8-kDa domain of a symmetry-related pol beta molecule reveal a plausible binding site on the 8-kDa domain for the downstream oligonucleotide of a gapped-DNA substrate; in addition to a lysine-rich binding pocket that accommodates a 5'-PO4 end group, the 8-kDa domain also contains a newly discovered helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motif that binds to DNA in the same way as does a structurally and sequentially homologous HhH motif in the 31-kDa domain. DNA binding by both HhH motifs is facilitated by a metal ion. In that HhH motifs have been identified in other DNA repair enzymes and DNA polymerases, the HhH-DNA interactions observed in pol beta may be applicable to a broad range of DNA binding proteins. The sequence similarity between the HhH motif of endonuclease III from Escherichia coli and the HhH motif of the 8-kDa domain of pol beta is particularly striking in that all of the conserved residues are clustered in one short sequence segment, LPGVGXK, where LPGV corresponds to a type II beta-turn (the hairpin turn), and GXK corresponds to a part of the HhH motif that is proposed to be critical for DNA binding and catalysis for both enzymes. These results suggest that endonuclease III and the 8-kDa domain of pol beta may employ a similar mode of DNA binding and may have similar catalytic mechanisms for their respective DNA lyase activities. A model for productive binding of pol beta to a gapped-DNA substrate requires a 90 degrees bend in the single-stranded template, which could enhance nucleotide selectivity during DNA repair or replication.