Secondary literature sources for PhnA_Zn_Ribbon
The following references were automatically generated.
- Tsoi TV, Plotnikova EG, Cole JR, Guerin WF, Bagdasarian M, Tiedje JM
- Cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 ohb genes coding for oxygenolytic ortho dehalogenation of halobenzoates.
- Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999; 65: 2151-62
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We have cloned and characterized novel oxygenolytic ortho-dehalogenation (ohb) genes from 2-chlorobenzoate (2-CBA)- and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate (2,4-dCBA)-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142. Among 3,700 Escherichia coli recombinants, two clones, DH5alphaF'(pOD22) and DH5alphaF'(pOD33), converted 2-CBA to catechol and 2,4-dCBA and 2,5-dCBA to 4-chlorocatechol. A subclone of pOD33, plasmid pE43, containing the 3,687-bp minimized ohb DNA region conferred to P. putida PB2440 the ability to grow on 2-CBA as a sole carbon source. Strain PB2440(pE43) also oxidized but did not grow on 2,4-dCBA, 2,5-dCBA, or 2,6-dCBA. Terminal oxidoreductase ISPOHB structural genes ohbA and ohbB, which encode polypeptides with molecular masses of 20,253 Da (beta-ISP) and 48,243 Da (alpha-ISP), respectively, were identified; these proteins are in accord with the 22- and 48-kDa (as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) polypeptides synthesized in E. coli and P. aeruginosa parental strain 142. The ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase activity was manifested in the absence of ferredoxin and reductase genes, suggesting that the ISPOHB utilized electron transfer components provided by the heterologous hosts. ISPOHB formed a new phylogenetic cluster that includes aromatic oxygenases featuring atypical structural-functional organization and is distant from the other members of the family of primary aromatic oxygenases. A putative IclR-type regulatory gene (ohbR) was located upstream of the ohbAB genes. An open reading frame (ohbC) of unknown function that overlaps lengthwise with ohbB but is transcribed in the opposite direction was found. The ohbC gene codes for a 48,969-Da polypeptide, in accord with the 49-kDa protein detected in E. coli. The ohb genes are flanked by an IS1396-like sequence containing a putative gene for a 39,715-Da transposase A (tnpA) at positions 4731 to 5747 and a putative gene for a 45,247-Da DNA topoisomerase I/III (top) at positions 346 to 1563. The ohb DNA region is bordered by 14-bp imperfect inverted repeats at positions 56 to 69 and 5984 to 5997.
- Wanner BL
- Molecular genetics of carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage in bacteria.
- Biodegradation. 1994; 5: 175-84
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Phosphonates (Pn) are a large class of organophosphorus molecules that have direct carbon-phosphorus (C-P) bonds in place of the carbon-oxygen-phosphorus ester bond. In bacteria two pathways exist for Pn breakdown for use as a P source: the phosphonatase and C-P lyase pathways. These pathways differ both in regard to their substrate specificity and their cleavage mechanism. The phosphonatase pathway acts on the natural Pn alpha-aminoethylphosphonate (AEPn). In a two-step process it leads to cleavage of the C-P bond by a hydrolysis reaction requiring an adjacent carbonyl group. In contrast the C-P lyase pathway has a broad substrate specificity. It leads to cleavage of substituted Pn (such as AEPn) as well as unsubstituted Pn by a mechanism involving redox or radical chemistry. Due to its broad substrate specificity, the C-P lyase pathway is generally thought to be responsible for the breakdown of Pn herbicides (such as glyphosate) by bacteria. As a way to gain a more in-depth understanding of these Pn degradative pathways, their respective genes have been isolated and characterized. In the absence of a biochemical assay for the C-P lyase pathway such molecular approaches have been especially valuable. The roles of individual genes have been inferred from DNA sequence analysis and mutational effects. Genes for the C-P lyase pathway exist in a fourteen-gene operon that appears to encode both a binding protein-dependent Pn transporter and a C-P lyase. Genes for the phosphonatase pathway also exist in a gene cluster containing Pn uptake and degradative genes. A combination of biochemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics approaches has provided more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of C-P bond cleavage. Such basic information may provide a new handle for improvement of Pn degradation capabilities in bacteria, or in other cells in which the respective genes may be introduced and expressed.
- McMullan G, Watkins R, Harper DB, Quinn JP
- Carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage activity in cell-free extracts of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 15038 and Pseudomonas sp. 4ASW.
- Biochem Int. 1991; 25: 271-9
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Carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage activity was investigated in cell-free extracts of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 15038 (IFO 12010) and Pseudomonas sp. 4ASW, strains known to utilize a range of phosphonates as sole phosphorus source. In vitro phosphonatase activity was detected in extracts of both organisms; however extensive analysis failed to detect any organic product from phosphonates other than phosphonoacetal dehyde. Non-specific liberation of phosphate was observed in Pseudomonas sp. 4ASW, associated with a single fraction of FPLC-purified extract, and is believed to result from the activity of cellular phosphatases.