Secondary literature sources for TDU
The following references were automatically generated.
- Chen HH, Mullett SJ, Stewart AF
- Vgl-4, a novel member of the vestigial-like family of transcription cofactors, regulates alpha1-adrenergic activation of gene expression in cardiac myocytes.
- J Biol Chem. 2004; 279: 30800-6
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Cardiac and skeletal muscle genes are regulated by the transcriptional enhancer factor (TEF-1) family of transcription factors. In skeletal muscle, TEF-1 factors interact with a skeletal muscle-specific cofactor called Vestigial-like 2 (Vgl-2) that is related to the Drosophila protein Vestigial. Here, we characterize Vgl-4, the only member of the Vestigial-like family expressed in the heart. Unlike other members of the Vgl family that have a single TEF-1 interaction domain called the tondu (TDU) motif, Vgl-4 has two TDU motifs in its carboxyl-terminal domain. Like other Vgl factors, Vgl-4 physically interacts with TEF-1 in an immunoprecipitation assay. Vgl-4 functionally interacts with TEF-1 and also with myocyte enhancer factor 2 in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. Overexpression of Vgl-4 in cardiac myocytes interfered with the basal expression and alpha1-adrenergic receptor-dependent activation of a TEF-1-dependent skeletal alpha-actin promoter. In cardiac myocytes cultured in serum and in serum-free medium, a myc-tagged Vgl-4 protein was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm but was exported from the nucleus when cells were treated with alpha1-adrenergic receptor agonist. A chimeric nuclear-retained Vgl-4 protein inhibited alpha1-adrenergic receptor-dependent activation. In contrast, deletion of the TDU motifs of Vgl-4 prevented Vgl-4 nuclear localization, relieved Vgl-4 interference of basal activity, and enhanced alpha1-adrenergic up-regulation of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter. Nuclear export of Vgl-4 is dependent on the nuclear exportin CRM-1. These results suggest that Vgl-4 modulates the activity of TEF-1 factors and counteracts alpha1-adrenergic activation of gene expression in cardiac myocytes.
- Wu L et al.
- Cloning and functional characterization of the murine mastermind-like 1 (Maml1) gene.
- Gene. 2004; 328: 153-65
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The Notch signaling pathway controls cell fate decisions and plays a critical role in normal development and diseases. The human mastermind-like (MAML) family members (MAML1, 2 and 3) encode critical transcriptional co-activators for Notch receptors. In this study, we cloned a murine cDNA that is highly homologous to the human MAML1 gene, Maml1. Mouse Maml1 encodes a nuclear protein, binds to the ankyrin repeat domain of Notch receptors, forms a ternary complex with the intracellular domain of Notch (ICN) and the DNA binding protein CSL, and enhances Notch-induced transcription of the target gene, HES-1. Therefore, Maml1 is the murine homologue for human MAML1 and functions as a transcriptional co-activator for Notch signaling. We also characterized the organization of the mouse Maml1 gene: It spans at least 35 kilobases (kb) on chromosome 11 and contains five exons and four introns. Analysis of the 5' flanking region revealed that the promoter is TATA-less, and contains consensus binding sites for transcription factors such as Sp1, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), activating transcription factor (ATF) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Moreover, we examined Maml1 expression during early mouse development and found that Maml1 gene is expressed widely but selectively in several tissues. There seems to be close correlation of the spatial and temporal expression among Maml1, Notch1 and Hes1 in the central nervous system (CNS) during early development, implicating a role for the Maml1 gene in neurogenesis.
- Kudryavtseva EI et al.
- Identification and characterization of Grainyhead-like epithelial transactivator (GET-1), a novel mammalian Grainyhead-like factor.
- Dev Dyn. 2003; 226: 604-17
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LMO-4 is an LIM-only factor that is highly expressed in many epithelial cells, including those of the epidermis and hair follicles. Because LMOs may function by interacting with DNA-binding proteins, we have used the yeast two-hybrid system to screen mouse skin libraries for LMO-4-interacting DNA-binding proteins. In this screen, we isolated a novel LMO-4-interacting factor highly related to the Drosophila gene Grainyhead. Grainyhead is epidermally expressed and carries out important functions in cuticular formation in the fly embryo. With the identification of this novel mammalian Grainyhead-like gene, referred to as Grainyhead-like epithelial transactivator 1 (GET-1), the known members of the mammalian Grainyhead-like gene family are extended to six, falling into two classes based on sequence homology. Of interest, the expression pattern of GET-1 is similar to that of Drosophila Grainyhead with highest expression in the somatic ectoderm/epidermis, but GET-1 is additionally expressed in epithelial cells of gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory tracks. The GET-1 protein localizes to the nucleus and binds to at least one Grainyhead DNA-binding site. The GET-1 DNA-binding domain maps to a region containing homology to the Drosophila Grainyhead DNA-binding domain. GET-1 homodimerizes in solution by means of a short C-terminally located domain that is homologous to other Grainyhead-like genes. A short domain located between amino acids 100 and 190, which bears no homology to known transactivation domains, is sufficient to confer transactivation to the heterologous GAL4 DNA-binding domain. In addition, GET-1 appears to contain repression domains consistent with the observation that Grainyhead and other mammalian Grainyhead-like genes can act both as activators and repressors. These data suggest that GET-1 is a transcriptional regulator that may perform important functions in epithelial tissues of mammals.
- Srivastava A, MacKay JO, Bell JB
- A Vestigial:Scalloped TEA domain chimera rescues the wing phenotype of a scalloped mutation in Drosophila melanogaster.
- Genesis. 2002; 33: 40-7
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The development of the Drosophila wing requires both scalloped and vestigial functions. Using a fusion between full-length Vestigial and the Scalloped TEA domain, the fusion protein can rescue scalloped wing mutations because within wing development, Scalloped and Vestigial cooperatively act as a transcription complex. Scalloped provides the necessary DNA binding function via the TEA domain and Vestigial promotes the activation of target genes. We also demonstrate that the putative nuclear localization signal contained in the TEA domain of Scalloped is likely responsible for the nuclear localization of Vestigial. The fusion protein is also capable of activating a known target gene of the native complex and thus represents a tool that will be helpful in rapidly identifying target genes of the Sd/Vg complex that are involved in wing differentiation. The functionality of the fusion suggests that only the TEA domain of Scalloped is critical for wing development and the rest of the protein (about 70%) is dispensable. This result is novel and should stimulate further studies of sd in other tissues in view of the fact that scalloped is a vital gene in Drosophila.
- Halder G, Carroll SB
- Binding of the Vestigial co-factor switches the DNA-target selectivity of the Scalloped selector protein.
- Development. 2001; 128: 3295-305
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The formation and identity of organs and appendages are regulated by specific selector genes that encode transcription factors that regulate potentially large sets of target genes. The DNA-binding domains of selector proteins often exhibit relatively low DNA-binding specificity in vitro. It is not understood how the target selectivity of most selector proteins is determined in vivo. The Scalloped selector protein controls wing development in Drosophila by regulating the expression of numerous target genes and forming a complex with the Vestigial protein. We show that binding of Vestigial to Scalloped switches the DNA-binding selectivity of Scalloped. Two conserved domains of the Vestigial protein that are not required for Scalloped binding in solution are required for the formation of the heterotetrameric Vestigial-Scalloped complex on DNA. We suggest that Vestigial affects the conformation of Scalloped to create a wing cell-specific DNA-binding selectivity. The modification of selector protein DNA-binding specificity by co-factors appears to be a general mechanism for regulating their target selectivity in vivo.
- Schaefer L, Engman H, Miller JB
- Coding sequence, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern of Nrf1: the mouse homolog of Drosophila erect wing.
- Mamm Genome. 2000; 11: 104-10
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In Drosophila, the erect wing (ewg) protein is required for proper development of the central nervous system and the indirect flight muscles. The fly ewg gene encodes a novel DNA-binding domain that is also found in four genes previously identified in sea urchin, chicken, zebrafish, and human. To identify mouse ewg homologs, we designed degenerate primers to the conserved DNA-binding domain. The RT-PCR product obtained from mRNA of the mouse muscle cell line C2C12 was used to screen cDNA libraries; a single gene was identified which encodes a predicted 503 amino acid protein. The mouse ewg homolog, termed Nrf1, was mapped to proximal Chr 6. By RT-PCR and Northern analysis, Nrf1 was expressed in all tissues examined, and Northern analysis on adult tissues revealed a complex banding pattern suggesting extensive alternative splicing. Nrf1 hybridized to mRNA transcripts at approximately 2.2 kb, 4.0 kb, 4.4 kb, and 5.0 kb, with additional tissue-specific transcripts at 1.5 kb in testis, 1.9 kb in lung, and 3.7 kb in skeletal muscle. In situ hybridization on whole-mount E9-10.5 embryos showed a broad pattern of expression, with the highest levels of expression in the central nervous system, somites, first branchial arch, optic vesicle, and otic vesicle.
- Jiang SW, Trujillo MA, Sakagashira M, Wilke RA, Eberhardt NL
- Novel human TEF-1 isoforms exhibit altered DNA binding and functional properties.
- Biochemistry. 2000; 39: 3505-13
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The transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) is a member of the TEA/ATTS domain family. TEF-1 binds to GT-IIC (GGAATG), SphI (AGTATG), SphII (AGCATG), and M-CAT (GGTATG) response elements and is involved in the transactivation of a variety of genes, including the SV40 large T antigen, mammalian muscle-specific genes, and human chorionic somatomammotropin genes. Also, TEF-1 acts as a transcriptional repressor in placental cells, possibly through interaction with the TATA binding protein (TBP), preventing TBP binding to the TATA box. Here we describe the cloning, tissue-specific expression pattern, and functional characterization of two novel TEF-1 isoforms, TEF-1beta and TEF-1gamma. These isoforms most likely arise from alternative splicing of mRNA transcribed from a single gene and involve substitutions and/or insertions in a region immediately following the DNA binding domain. TEF-1beta appears to be widely distributed like the prototypic TEF-1, designated TEF-1alpha, whereas TEF-1gamma exhibits a narrower tissue-specific expression pattern that includes pancreas, kidney, and skeletal and heart muscle. The relatively limited sequence alterations among these isoforms cause significant changes in their DNA binding and transcriptional activities. TEF-1beta and TEF-1gamma bind to GT-IIC sequences with higher affinity and repress hCS promoter more efficiently than TEF-1alpha. These results suggest that each TEF-1 isoform may play unique regulatory roles in various tissues.
- Vaudin P, Delanoue R, Davidson I, Silber J, Zider A
- TONDU (TDU), a novel human protein related to the product of vestigial (vg) gene of Drosophila melanogaster interacts with vertebrate TEF factors and substitutes for Vg function in wing formation.
- Development. 1999; 126: 4807-16
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The mammalian TEF and the Drosophila scalloped genes belong to a conserved family of transcriptional factors that possesses a TEA/ATTS DNA-binding domain. Transcriptional activation by these proteins likely requires interactions with specific coactivators. In Drosophila, Scalloped (Sd) interacts with Vestigial (Vg) to form a complex, which binds DNA through the Sd TEA/ATTS domain. The Sd-Vg heterodimer is a key regulator of wing development, which directly controls several target genes and is able to induce wing outgrowth when ectopically expressed. Here we show that Vg contains two distinct transcriptional activation domains, suggesting that the function of Vg is to mediate transcriptional activation by Sd. By expressing a chimeric GAL4-Sd protein in Drosophila, we found that the transcriptional activity of the Vg-Sd heterodimer is negatively regulated at the AP and DV boundary of the wing disc. We also identify a novel human protein, TONDU, which contains a short domain homologous to the domain of Vg required for interaction with Sd. We show that TONDU specifically interacts with a domain conserved in all the mammalian TEF factors. Expression of TDU in Drosophila by means of the UAS-GAL4 system shows that this human protein can substitute for Vg in wing formation. We propose that TDU is a specific coactivator for the mammalian TEFs.
- Jacquemin P, Martial JA, Davidson I
- Human TEF-5 is preferentially expressed in placenta and binds to multiple functional elements of the human chorionic somatomammotropin-B gene enhancer.
- J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 12928-37
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We report the cloning of a cDNA encoding the human transcription factor hTEF-5, containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain and related to the TEF family of transcription factors. hTEF-5 is expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but the strongest expression is observed in the placenta and in placenta-derived JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. In correlation with its placental expression, we show that hTEF-5 binds to several functional enhansons of the human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS)-B gene enhancer. We define a novel functional element in this enhancer comprising tandemly repeated sites to which hTEF-5 binds cooperatively. In the corresponding region of the hCS-A enhancer, which is known to be inactive, this element is inactivated by a naturally occurring single base mutation that disrupts hTEF-5 binding. We further show that the binding of the previously described placental protein f/chorionic somatomammotropin enhancer factor-1 to TEF-binding sites is disrupted by monoclonal antibodies directed against the TEA domain and that this factor is a proteolytic degradation product of the TEF factors. These results strongly suggest that hTEF-5 regulates the activity of the hCS-B gene enhancer.
- Deshpande N, Chopra A, Rangarajan A, Shashidhara LS, Rodrigues V, Krishna S
- The human transcription enhancer factor-1, TEF-1, can substitute for Drosophila scalloped during wingblade development.
- J Biol Chem. 1997; 272: 10664-8
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The human transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that have a DNA binding TEA domain. TEF-1 shares a 98% homology with Drosophila scalloped (sd) in the DNA binding domain and a 50% similarity in the activation domain. We have expressed human TEF-1 in Drosophila under the hsp-70 promoter and find that it can substitute for Sd function. The transformants rescue the wingblade defects as well as the lethality of loss-of-function alleles. Observation of reporter activity in the imaginal wing discs of the enhancer-trap alleles suggests that TEF-1 is capable of promoting sd gene regulation. The functional capability of the TEF-1 product was assessed by comparing the extent of rescue by heat shock (hs)-TEF-1 with that of hs-sd. The finding that TEF-1 can function in vivo during wingblade development offers a potent genetic system for the analysis of its function and in the identification of the molecular partners of TEF-1.
- Jacquemin P, Hwang JJ, Martial JA, Dolle P, Davidson I
- A novel family of developmentally regulated mammalian transcription factors containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain.
- J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 21775-85
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We describe the molecular cloning of two novel human and murine transcription factors containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain and related to transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1). These factors bind to the consensus TEA/ATTS cognate binding site exemplified by the GT-IIC and Sph enhansons of the SV40 enhancer but differ in their ability to bind cooperatively to tandemly repeated sites. The human TEFs are differentially expressed in cultured cell lines and the mouse (m)TEFs are differentially expressed in embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues in early post-implantation embryos. Strikingly, at later stages of embryogenesis, mTEF-3 is specifically expressed in skeletal muscle precursors, whereas mTEF-1 is expressed not only in developing skeletal muscle but also in the myocardium. Together with previous data, these results point to important, partially redundant, roles for these TEF proteins in myogenesis and cardiogenesis. In addition, mTEF-1 is strongly coexpressed with mTEF-4 in mitotic neuroblasts, while accentuated mTEF-4 expression is also observed in the gut and the nephrogenic region of the kidney. These observations suggest additional roles for the TEF proteins in central nervous system development and organogenesis.
- Azakie A, Larkin SB, Farrance IK, Grenningloh G, Ordahl CP
- DTEF-1, a novel member of the transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) multigene family.
- J Biol Chem. 1996; 271: 8260-5
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M-CAT motifs mediate muscle-specific transcriptional activity via interaction with binding factors that are antigenically and biochemically related to vertebrate transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1), a member of the TEA/ATTS domain family of transcription factors. M-CAT binding activities present in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues cannot be fully accounted for by existing cloned isoforms of TEF-1. TEF-1-related cDNAs isolated from heart libraries indicate that at least three classes of TEF-1-related cDNAs are expressed in these and other tissues. One class are homologues of the human TEF-1 originally cloned from HeLa cells (Xiao, J. H., Davidson, I., Matthes, H., Garnier, J. M., and Chambon, P. (1991) Cell 65, 551-568). A second class represents homologues of the avian TEF-1-related gene previously isolated (Stewart, A. F., Larkin, S. B., Farrance, I. K., Mar, J. H., Hall, D. E., and Ordahl, C. P. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 3147-3150). The third class consists of a novel, divergent TEF-1 cDNA, named DTEF-1, and its preliminary characterization is described here. Two isoforms of DTEF-1 (DTEF-1A and DTEF-1B) were isolated as 1.9-kilobase pair clones with putative open reading frames of 433 and 432 amino acids whose differences are attributable to alternative splicing at the C terminus of the TEA DNA binding domain. Cardiac muscle contains high levels of DTEF-1 transcripts, but unexpectedly low levels are detected in skeletal muscle. DTEF-1 transcripts are present at intermediate levels in gizzard and lung, and at low levels in kidney. DTEF-1A is a sequence-specific M-CAT-binding factor. The distinct spatial pattern of expression, and unusual amino acid sequence in its DNA binding domain, may indicate a particular role for DTEF-1 in cell-specific gene regulation. Recent work also suggests that at least one more TEF-1-related gene exists in vertebrates. We propose a naming system for the four TEF-1 gene family members identified to date that preserves existing nomenclature and provides a means for extending that nomenclature as additional family members may be identified.