Pancreatic hormones / neuropeptide F / peptide YY family
SMART accession number:SM00309
Description: Pancreatic hormone is a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.
Interpro abstract (IPR001955):

Pancreatic hormone (PP) [ (PUBMED:6107857) ] is a peptide synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langherhans, which acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.

The hormone is produced as a larger propeptide, which is enzymatically cleaved to yield the mature active peptide: this is 36 amino acids in length [ (PUBMED:3031687) ] and has an amidated C terminus [ (PUBMED:2599092) ]. The hormone has a globular structure, residues 2-8 forming a left-handed poly-proline-II-like helix, residues 9-13 a beta turn, and 14-32 an alpha-helix,held close to the first helix by hydrophobic interactions [ (PUBMED:3031687) ]. Unlike glucagon, another peptide hormone, the structure of pancreatic peptide is preserved in aqueous solution [ (PUBMED:2067973) ]. Both N and C termini are required for activity: receptor binding and activation functions may reside in the N and C termini respectively [ (PUBMED:3031687) ].

Pancreatic hormone is part of a wider family of active peptides that includes:

  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY or melanostatin) [ (PUBMED:3031687) ], one of the most abundant peptides in the mammalian nervous system. NPY is implicated in the control of feeding and the secretion of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.
  • Peptide YY (PYY) [ (PUBMED:6953409) ]. PPY is a gut peptide that inhibits exocrine pancreatic secretion, has a vasoconstrictory action and inhibits jejunal and colonic mobility. Known as goannatyrotoxin-Vere1 in the venom of the pygmy desert monitor lizard (Varanus eremius) where it has a triphasic action: rapid biphasic hypertension followed by prolonged hypotension in prey animals [ (PUBMED:20631207) ].
  • Various NPY and PYY-like polypeptides from fish and amphibians [ (PUBMED:1459125) (PUBMED:1620652) ].
  • Neuropeptide F (NPF) from invertebrates such as worms and snail.
  • Skin peptide Tyr-Tyr (SPYY) from the frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. SPYY shows a large spectra of antibacterial and antifungal activity.
  • Polypeptide MY (peptide methionine-tyrosine). A regulatory peptide from the intestine of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) [ (PUBMED:2070789) ].
All these peptides are 36 to 39 amino acids long. Like most active peptides, their C-terminal is amidated and they are synthesized as larger protein precursors.

GO component:extracellular region (GO:0005576)
GO function:hormone activity (GO:0005179)
Family alignment:
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There are 772 PAH domains in 768 proteins in SMART's nrdb database.

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