BBOXB-Box-type zinc finger
|SMART accession number:||SM00336|
|Interpro abstract (IPR000315):|
Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. Some of these domains bind zinc, but many do not; instead binding other metals such as iron, or no metal at all. For example, some family members form salt bridges to stabilise the finger-like folds. They were first identified as a DNA-binding motif in transcription factor TFIIIA from Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), however they are now recognised to bind DNA, RNA, protein and/or lipid substrates [(PUBMED:10529348), (PUBMED:15963892), (PUBMED:15718139), (PUBMED:17210253), (PUBMED:12665246)]. Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. There are many superfamilies of Znf motifs, varying in both sequence and structure. They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. For example, Znf-containing proteins function in gene transcription, translation, mRNA trafficking, cytoskeleton organisation, epithelial development, cell adhesion, protein folding, chromatin remodelling and zinc sensing, to name but a few [(PUBMED:11179890)]. Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target.
This entry represents B-box-type zinc finger domains, which are around 40 residues in length. B-box zinc fingers can be divided into two groups, where types 1 and 2 B-box domains differ in their consensus sequence and in the spacing of the 7-8 zinc-binding residues. Several proteins contain both types 1 and 2 B-boxes, suggesting some level of cooperativity between these two domains. B-box domains are found in over 1500 proteins from a variety of organisms. They are found in TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins that consist of an N-terminal RING finger (originally called an A-box), followed by 1-2 B-box domains and a coiled-coil domain (also called RBCC for Ring, B-box, Coiled-Coil). TRIM proteins contain a type 2 B-box domain, and may also contain a type 1 B-box. In proteins that do not contain RING or coiled-coil domains, the B-box domain is primarily type 2. Many type 2 B-box proteins are involved in ubiquitinylation. Proteins containing a B-box zinc finger domain include transcription factors, ribonucleoproteins and proto-oncoproteins; for example, MID1, MID2, TRIM9, TNL, TRIM36, TRIM63, TRIFIC, NCL1 and CONSTANS-like proteins [(PUBMED:16434393)].
The microtubule-associated E3 ligase MID1 (EC 6.3.2) contains a type 1 B-box zinc finger domain. MID1 specifically binds Alpha-4, which in turn recruits the catalytic subunit of phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac). This complex is required for targeting of PP2Ac for proteasome-mediated degradation. The MID1 B-box coordinates two zinc ions and adopts a beta/beta/alpha cross-brace structure similar to that of ZZ, PHD, RING and FYVE zinc fingers [(PUBMED:17428496), (PUBMED:16529770)].
More information about these proteins can be found at Protein of the Month: Zinc Fingers .
|GO component:||intracellular (GO:0005622)|
|GO function:||zinc ion binding (GO:0008270)|
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